The Tetragrammaton  =  hwhy = YaHuWaH

h[wcwhy = YaHuWSHuWaH 

Kefa (also known as Petros, or Peter) was one of Yahuwshua’s three closest trainees, spending a few years in His direct company. He was specifically commissioned to “feed [His] sheep”. (Yahuwchanan 21:16-17) He took this seriously, writing two general letters as reminders to Yahuwshua’s followers in the dispersion, to keep His priorities fresh in their minds, knowing that they would be specifically targeted by the enemy with the temptation to forget them. (2 Kefa 1:10-15) In contrast with Ya'aqob, who wrote mainly to people he had never met, we know Kefa had traveled to some of the places outside of Ysra'al where Sha'ul also went (Galatians 2:11). He had “rubbed elbows” with these returning Ysra'alites (who are in the same position we are in today) and has seen what is going on in their communities and the particular problems they have. Therefore, he has a more specific message for them. In some ways he seems to expand on what Ya'aqob says.

KEPHA's First Letter

1:1 Kepha, a Shaliach of  YaHuWSHuWaH haMashiyach, to the chosen ones (elect) who are living as foreigners in the Diaspora in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia; 1:2 chosen according to the prearrangement of YaHuWaH the Father, through the setting apart of  Ruwach haQadosh into obedient hearing and through the sprinkling of the blood of YaHuWSHuWaH haMashiyach:  May empowering favour and shalom be multiplied to you.

Prearrangement: at Mt. Sinai, where He included all of the descendants of those who had left the covenant in the meantime, and His promises through the Torah (Lev. 26:18, 40-45) and prophets (YirmeYahuw 16:16-19; 30:3; 31:31ff; Yehezq’al 4) to bring them back into their position at designated times (after 780 years and 2,730 years—the former being at the time just before Kefa was writing, and the latter being our own day). Sprinkling: as is to be done with blood from sin offerings (Lev. 4:6; 5:9), upon those being cleansed from leprosy (Lev. 14:7), on a house that was defiled (Lev. 14:57), the blood of the firstborn of clean animals (Lev. 18:17), and the blood of the red heifer to set apart the priesthood (Lev. 19:4) All of these were in various ways pictures of what YaHuWSHuWaH accomplished in cleansing us individually and corporately from sin and selfishness, and to make us a house fit for His dwelling once again. Shalom: Total well-being and completeness.

 1:3 Blessed be the Aluah and Father of our Master YaHuWSHuWaH haMashiyach, Who according to His great mercy, has begotten us afresh into a living hope through the resurrection of YaHuWSHuWaH haMashiyach from being dead, 1:4 into an inherited possession that is not liable to decay [Matt. 6:19], unsoiled, and unfading, having been kept under guard for you in heavenly realms 

Not liable to decay: a direct allusion to YaHuWSHuWaH's command to “lay up treasure in heaven, where moth or rust cannot corrupt.” (Mat. 6:19) But since, as in the parable of the Prodigal Son, we had squandered it the first time He gave it to us, He has set a trustee over it so we will not do so again. It is distributed little by little as He sees fit. Only today are some of the things it includes being revealed again. This inheritance has not yet been made manifest in the present world order, but in Scripture the terminology of inherited possessions is always tied to the Land of Ysra'al. Psalm 31:19-21 makes it even more specific: a city preserved for us. We finally see it in its completed state in Rev. 21. Tehillim 31:19 Oh how great is Your goodness, which You have laid up for those who fear You, which You have worked for those who take refuge in You, before the sons of men! 31:20 In the shelter of Your presence You will hide them from the plotting of man. You will guard them secretly in a dwelling away from the strife of tongues. [see verse 13] 31:21 Praise be to YaHuWaH, for He has shown me His marvelous loving kindness in a strong city.

 1:5 who are protected by the Power of YaHuWaH through belief for a deliverance ready to be revealed in the final decisive epoch,

Belief: or trust. Notice that this is a deliverance that has not come yet. The veil is beginning to be lifted, and, much to our surprise, we have a role to play in bringing it about!

"...... for a rescue ready to be disclosed during a latter feast season!  [Yowm Kippur,  Deuteronomy 32: 42] ]

[The Great and Terrible Day of YaHuWaH will come on a Yowm Kippur, a 10th day of the 7th (Hebrew) month, which is the latter feast season of the True calendar. [Day of Atonement]

YaHuWSHuWaH will suddenly come to His temple (Mal. 3: 1) seal His servants (Yehezqel 9: 3-4) at the 6th Seal - Great and Terrible Day of YaHuWaH (Rev. 6: 12 – 7: 8; Yahuw'al 2: 31-32)]

(From Yom Teruah - the resurrection of the righteous - to Atonement (the gathering of the living)  is 10 days - that is - from the resurrection at the last trump (the seventh and the "last one" of the trumpets of Rev. to His appearing to gather the living who are on the verge of being destroyed - on Yom Kippur will be 10 days) Note these texts:   YashaYahuw 27:12 It shall happen in That Day, that YaHuWaH shall thresh from the flowing stream of the River to the brook of Mitsrayim; and you shall be gathered one by one, children of Ysra'al. 27:13 It shall happen in That Day that a Great Shofar shall be blown (Day of Atonement); and those who were ready to perish in the land of Ashshuwr, and those who were outcasts in the land of Mitsrayim, shall come; and they shall worship YaHuWaH in the qodesh Mountain at Yahrushalom.  (gathering of the living set-apart ones )- and Matt. 24:31, Mark 13:27  He shall send out His Messengers with the sound of the Great Shofar [ Day of Atonement,] and they shall gather together His chosen ones from the four wind, from one end of the sky to the other. [this is the gathering of His living ones - the dead were raised 10 days earlier at Yom Teruach.   (Note * 24:31: The Great Shofar is blown on Yom Kippur (The Day of Atonement), and is representative of - and is blown in the introduction of the Jubilee Year. - the dead are raised 10 days earlier at the" " last trumpet" - "Day of Trumpets". --- there are two different trumpets blown during the feasts. The first "trump" is blown on Shabuot and is termed the "first trump" and the next trump is blown on Yom Teruach {day of trumpets} and is called the "last trump".... and from the Scriptural references it appears that the 7th trump of Rev. will coincide with the "last" feast trump, and will be the resurrection of YaHuWSHuWaH's people. This 10 day time span is what is referred to in the message to the assembly of Smurna in Rev. 2:10.

1:6 for which cause you leap because the joy is so great, even for now for a little while, if need be, you have been put to grief in various trials, 1:7 that the proof of your belief, (which is more precious than gold that perishes, even though it is tested by fire), may be found to result in praise, respect, and splendor at the manifestation of YaHuWSHuWaH haMashiyach—

Much of this pressure that would bring forth the oil to light YaHuWaH’s Dwelling-place (Ex. 27:20) came from the pagan culture around them (as it is for us today, though in a more veiled form)—whatever of their traditions and affections were not oriented toward YaHuWaH and Ysra'al and had to be forsaken, with whatever repercussions that brought from those around them.

1:8 Whom not having seen you affectionately love; in Whom, though now you don’t see Him, yet believing, you rejoice greatly with unspeakable joy which also makes it clear that your are worthy, 1:9  thus recovering for yourselves the aim of your confidence, a deliverance of your beings. 

Recovering for yourselves: We participate in the deliverance as we begin to follow it. But notice that it is getting something back—again, something we possessed once before. Aim: Aramaic, recompense or reward. Deliverance: or preservation; Aram., life—as a plural yet unified people.

1:10 Concerning this deliverance prophets (who were prophesying about the empowering favor that would come to you) have deeply inquired into and thoroughly investigated, 

Thoroughly investigated: like a reporter--a term also used of a dog sniffing something out. And who did the prophets speak about? There are a few brief mentions of light extending to the Gentiles as YaHuWSHuWaH receives the bonus for His faithfulness (YashaYahuw 49:6), but the preponderance of their prophecies are about Ysra'el’s return in the last days—both the Northern and Southern Kingdoms. 

 1:11 searching into what era or specific time the Ruwach of haMashiyach, which was within them, pointed to, when He predicted the sufferings that Mashiyach would undergo and the splendor that should follow.  (The "Ruwach of Mashiyach" is the Ruwach haQadosh which is YaHuWaH!)

1:12 To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but for us, they ministered these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the Good News to you by the Ruwach haQadosh sent out from Heaven; which things messengers desire to look into.

1:13 Through this, tying up the undisciplined aspects of your mind,  set your hope fully on the empowering favour that is being brought to you with the disclosure of YaHuWSHuWaH haMashiyach— 1:14 as children of obedience, not conforming yourselves according to your former lusts as in your ignorance, 1:15 but just as He Who called you is Set-apart, you yourselves also be set-apart in every aspect of your conduct; 1:16 because it is written, “You shall be set-apart; for I am Set-apart. 

This quote comes from three different passages in Leviticus: In 11:44-47, it is related directly to learning to make distinctions between right and wrong by keeping ourselves from unclean foods (so Kefa clearly knew that his vision had nothing to do with actually eating unclean animals). In 19:2, it is connected with keeping the Sabbath, respect for parents, abstaining from idolatry, temple slaughters, leaving something for the poor to glean, and thinking of our neighbors’ welfare. In 20:7-8, it refers to all of YaHuWaH’s statutes. So when Kefa used this quote as shorthand, it would make the reader of his day recall all of these commands and know that this is how YaHuWaH expects us to express the pureness He requires of us.

1:17 If you call on Him as Father, Who without respect of persons judges according to each man’s work, pass the time of your living as foreigners here in reverent fear: 1:18 knowing that you were redeemed, not with corruptible things, with silver or gold, from the pointless/profitless (Yirm. 16:19) way of life handed down from your fathers, 1:19 but with highly-valued blood, as of a unblemished and unspotted Lamb, the blood of haMashiyach; 1:20 Who was indeed foreknown before the disruption of the world (Aleph - a) (Olam She'awar - The World That Was) , but was revealed at the end of times (Taw - t) for your sake, 1:21 who through Him are believers in the Mighty One, Who raised Him from the dead, and gave Him splendor; so that your confidence and expectation might be in YaHuWaH.

1:22 Seeing you have ceremonially cleansed your beings by true obedience, through the Ruwach, into unfeigned love for the brothers,  make a great effort to look out for one another's best interest from a pure heart:

True obedience: literally, obedience of the truth. (It is not merely something to be held as an opinion.) Through the Ruwach: we are supernaturally granted obedience, yet it is still walked out physically through loving our neighbors as ourselves. Indeed, if we do not know the Torah, we have no idea of what it means to love our neighbors; we would have false preconceived notions of what seemed to be nice ways to treat them, but it would not always be what was most beneficial.

  1:23 as a man having been begotten afresh, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible seed, through the Living Word/Miltha of YaHuWaH, which lives and abides into the Ages. 

His seed: we have a new parentage, and thus a new history, with His highly-valued blood thus transfused into us as well. The Aramaic version, which is most likely the original (since it is doubtful that Kefa spoke fluent Greek), starts this verse with, “As a man”—that is, the one (united) new man Sha'ul speaks of in Eph. 2:15. Practicing the Torah makes us more than mere individuals and more than mere mortals; anything that is in us that is only of ourselves will decay away, but whatever is His doing cannot; it lasts forever. Where, then, should our priority be?

1:24 For, “All flesh is like grass,

and all of man’s esteem like the flower in the grass.

The grass withers, and its flower falls;

1:25 but the Word/Miltha of our Aluahiym abides to the Ages.” 

[“All, of the flesh, are herbage; and all of its beauty like a flower of the field!  Herbs wither, flowers fall, because the breath of YaHuWaH, it blows on it – definitely the people are herbage.  Herbs wither, flowers fall,

But the Word of our Aluahiym is established forever!”  YashaYahuw 40: 6-8]

This is the Word that is announced to you.

“Climb up on the high mountain, O herald of the glad tidings of Tsiyown!  Raise your voice in the shout, O herald of the glad tidings of Yahrushalom!  Lift it up, have no fear!  Say to the towns of Yahuwdah: ‘Here is your Mighty One!’” YashaYahuw 40: 9] 

2:1 Putting away therefore all wickedness, all deceit, hypocrisies, envies, and all evil speaking, 

 [Accordingly, casting off any ill-will or deceit or any play-acting or envying's that are within yourselves, as well as all put-downs.]

 2:2 as newborn babies, long for the pure milk of the Word, that you may grow thereby, 2:3 if indeed you have tasted for yourself that the Master is "palatable": 

The Master in this case, YaHuWSHuWaH. Palatable: The Greek term means useful, beneficial, manageable, and mild, not bitter. This is probably an allusion to Psalm 34:8. To an outsider, the Torah seems bitter, restrictive, foreign--a “strange thing” (Hos. 8:12), but to one who knows He is part of Ysra'al, when eaten, His words are a joy and rejoicing to the heart. (YirmeYahuw 15:16)

2:4 as you come near to Him, a living Stone, rejected indeed by men, but chosen by Aluahiym, elect and precious. 2:5 You also, as living stones, are built up as a Ruwachual House, to be a Set-apart priesthood, to offer up Ruwachual slaughters, acceptable to Aluahiym through YaHuWSHuWaH haMashiyach. 

Ruwachual does not mean unreal or barely there in outline form. Just the opposite is true; Ruwachual things are more real than visible ones (2 Cor. 4:18), but they are borne out in the physical realm, because YaHuWaH has put the pattern right in the earth. We will literally draw the blade to animals. That is how we learn certain aspects of Ruwachual reality best. YaHuWaH does not call us to blind faith, for He gives us proof of His deeds in the deeds He calls us to do.

2:6 Because it is contained in Scripture: "Look, I am laying down in Tsiyown an outermost-corner stone, hand picked, held in high esteem, and the one who rests his confidence on Him will not be ashamed. "YashaYahuw 28:16

2:7 For you who trust therefore is the esteem, but for those who are disobedient,

“The Stone which the builders rejected, has become the Chief Cornerstone,” Psalms 118: 22

2:8 and, “a Stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense.” And they stumble at it because they believe not the Word toward which they were also laid down.

Toward which: that is, in line with the cornerstone (v. 6), which sets the standard. We are meant to uphold Him, not vice versa. Instead, we have chiseled Him into our image—into someone who prefers the Gentile way, and thus His words lead us toward conclusions like that seen in v. 16. Paul’s writings were already being twisted. (2 Kefa 3:16) Laid down: or, appointed. Ysra'al was designed to serve His purposes, but we decided to serve what we thought was our own, which was really the agenda of the world order whose cornerstone was Nimrod the rebel, echoing haSatan. 

.... “…But as a striking Stone and as an obstacle Rock  MattithYahuw 21: 44  YirmeYahuw 6: 21] that makes them fall, for both of the houses of Ysra'al, for a trap and for a snare to Yahrushalom's inhabitants: And of them, the Many will stumble and they will fall and they will be broken and they will be ensnared and they will be captured;” YashaYahuw 8: 14-15]

 2:9 But you are a "chosen race", [Debarim 7:6;Tehillim 33:12]  officiating as priests of the Kingdom, (YashaYahuw 66:20-21) a Set-apart people, a people for Aluahiym’s own possession, that you may proclaim the excellence of Him Who called you out of darkness into His marvelous Light!  2:10 who in time past were Lo’-Ammíy” (Not My people - Hushuwa 1:9), but now are YaHuWaH's people (Hushuwa 1:10), who were “Lo’-Rucha´mah” (Not pitied ), but now have obtained mercy. [Paraphrase of Hushuwa 2: 23]

" You, on the other hand, are “a chosen race [Deut. 7:6; 14:2; Psalm 33:12], a royal order of priests, an ethnic group in a separate category, a people kept back as His own possession, so that you may divulge the excellent virtues of the One Who has called you out of darkness into His incomprehensible light-- 10. [you] who once were “not a people” [Hushuwa 1:9], but now are the people of Al [Hushuwa 1:10]; those “Not Pitied”, but now having experienced mercy! [2:23] " [from Scriptures for all Israel]

Not a people: Aram., not counted a people. But now: 780 years later—after the doubling (YirmeYahuw 16: 18; YashaYahuw 40:2) of the sentence of 390 years (Yehezqel 4:9). After Kefa wrote this, despite his reminders (2 Kefa 1:13-15), we chose once again not to continue living as a people (the nation Ysra'al), but the mercy of YaHuWaH kept us from totally losing contact with Him until the day has again come when we have another occasion to fulfill all that this means.

 2:11 Beloved, I beg you as foreigners and sojourners, to abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul;

Foreigners and sojourners: living in exile, while still outside their proper Land of Ysra'al. Trimm also sees this as alluding to Gen 23:4; 47:9, showing that it refers to the descendants of Abraham and Ya'aqob in particular. What is forbidden: that is, to Yasra'elites, who are called to remain set apart, even though dwelling in the midst of peoples for whom such a high standard has not been required. These lusts find a foothold in our natural selves as human beings with the same weaknesses as anyone else, but we are given more empowerment to overcome them—including the very knowledge once again of who we are, a knowledge that had been totally lost twice in our history.

 2:12 holding yourselves to surpassingly-commendable behavior among the gentiles, so that in whatever they may defame you as "evildoers", they may acknowledge the worthiness of YaHuWaH at a time of inspection because they have seen the evidence from your beneficial deeds.  

Among the Gentiles: therefore, those he is addressing are NOT Gentiles in the classic sense, but only those who had left Ysra'al, but were still Ysra'alite in fact. Evildoers: for example, first-century believers were called “atheists” because they did not recognize the lower gods of the Romans—though, of all people, they were pious believers! 

2:13 Therefore subject yourselves to every ordinance of man for haMashiyach’s sake: whether to the king, as supreme; 2:14 or to governors, as sent by him for vengeance on evildoers and for praise to those who do well. 2:15 For this is the will of YaHuWaH, that by well-doing you should put to silence the ignorance of foolish men who do not know Aluahiym: 2:16 as free, and not using your freedom for a cloak of wickedness, but as bondservants of YaHuWaH.

2:17 Hold them all in high esteem:  act for the best interest of the brotherhood. Fear YaHuWaH, esteem the king. 

Note that we can find value or worth in anyone YaHuWaH has made, but we are only called to love (act for the best interests of, agapae) those who also love Him.

2:18 Servants, be in subjection to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to those who are hard and difficult. 2:19 For it is commendable if someone endures pain, suffering unjustly, because of conscience toward YaHuWaH. 2:20 For what praise is it if, when you sin, you patiently endure beating? But if, when you do well, you patiently endure suffering, this is commendable with YaHuWaH. 2:21 For to this you were called, because haMashiyach also suffered for us, leaving you an example, that you should follow His steps, 

Example: model, pattern, or paradigm, literally “under-letter”, from a practice of allowing children to trace a stencil-like guide when beginning to learn to write the letters of the alphabet.

2:22 Who did not sin, “neither was deceit found in His mouth.” YashaYahuw 53: 9

2:23 Who, when He was slandered, didn’t slander back. When He suffered, didn’t threaten, but committed Himself to Him Who judges righteously; 2:24 Who Himself bore our sins in His body on the execution stake, that we, having died to sins, might live to righteousness; by Whose wounds trickling with blood you were healed. 2:25 For you were going astray like sheep; but now have been turned back to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls.    [YashaYahuw 53: 5-6]

The quoted Scripture goes on to say we had each turned to our own way, so Ya'aqob plays on this phraseology to indicate the reparation YaHuWSHuWaH made for us. Again, if we are turning back, we are returning to a path we walked on once before. Who but Yasra'al (aside from a few of its predecessors) had ever walked with YaHuWaH before?

(Shemoth  34:6 YaHuWaH passed by before him, and proclaimed, “ YaHuWaH, YaHuWaH a merciful and gracious Aluahiym, slow to anger, and abundant in loving kindness and truth, 34:7 keeping loving kindness for thousands, BEARING AWAY perversity and rebellion and sin;)

3:1 In like manner, wives, be in subjection to your own husbands; so that, even if any don’t obey the Word, they may be won by the behavior of their wives without a word;

Husbands: literally, simply “men”, but note the qualification of “their own”, not simply all men in general. Not persuaded by the logic: or, disobedient to the word. Without the intervention of a word: Aramaic, without much difficulty. The context of this type of submission is in the wives’ speech (of which YaHuWSHuWaH was an example, 2:21-22), not a blind submission to a husband who demands that she violate YaHuWaH's instructions or keeps her from assembling with YaHuWaH's community. These women believed on Mashiyach before their husbands did, and he is saying, “You’ve done enough talking; now just be quiet, let it sink in, and show them that you practice what you preach.”

3:2 seeing your pure behavior in fear. 3:3 Let your beauty be not just the outward adorning of braiding the hair, and of wearing jewels of gold, or of putting on fine clothing; 3:4 rather in the hidden person of the heart, in the incorruptible adornment of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of YaHuWaH very precious.

Rather: often an idiom for “put the most emphasis here” without necessarily negating the other completely. If any emphasis is put on the outward appearance, the inward emphasis must at least supersede this. Wear out: or decay, with the sense of contrast with a beauty that would fade with the aging process. Tranquil: Aramaic, without corruption, or, not altering [it].

 3:5 For this is how the kodesh women before, who hoped in YaHuWaH also adorned themselves, being in subjection to their own husbands: 3:6 as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him master, whose children you now are, if you do well, and are not put in fear by any terror.

3:7 You husbands, in like manner, live with your wives according to knowledge, giving esteem to the woman, as to the weaker vessel, as being also joint heirs of the favour of life; that your prayers may not be hindered.

3:8 Finally, be all like-minded, compassionate, loving as brothers, tenderhearted, courteous,  3:9 not rendering evil for evil, or insult for insult; but instead blessing; knowing that to this were you called, that you may inherit a blessing. 3:10-12 For: “Come, sons, listen to me, I will teach you the fear of YaHuWaH: Who is the man who wishes to affectionately love life and to see good days?  Restrain your tongue from evil, and your lips from speaking deceit.  Deviate away from evil, and do goodness!  Seek shalowm (peace, reconciliation, completeness) and pursue it!”  Because: “The eyes of YaHuWaH are towards the righteous ones, and His ears are towards their calling.”  But: “The face of YaHuWaH is against ones doing evil, to cut off their memory from the earth.”  [Psalms 34: 12-16]

3:13 Now who will do you harm you if you are zealous of good works? 3:14 But even if you should suffer for righteousness’ sake, you are blessed. “Do not be terrified by those who would terrify you, nor should you be troubled”, 3:15 but in your hearts acknowledge YaHuWaH as in a category of His own"; and invariably be prepared to give a reasoned argument to everyone who asks you for an explanation of the hope that is within you, with humility and fear: 

A reasoned argument: Aramaic, an exuding Ruwach. Being learned and able to answer, though, does not always mean every question is worthy of a response. Some may just be intent on causing trouble or wasting your time. Do not put pearls (entrances to the Kingdom, Rev. 21:21) in front of swine. (Mat. 7:6)

3:16 having a good conscience; that, while you are spoken against as evildoers, they may be disappointed who curse your good manner of life in haMashiyach.

Upright conscience: or, complete understanding (consciousness); i.e., know where you stand—as only part of the whole body, yet an integral part nonetheless. As Ya'aqob says, look in the mirror and remember who you are. (1:23) When the high priest saw his reflection on the Temple’s gold-plated walls, he would see “set apart unto YaHuWaH”. The same is true of all of Ysra'al.

 3:17 For it is better, if it is Aluahiym’s will, that you suffer for doing well than for doing evil. 3:18 Because haMashiyach also suffered for sins once, the righteous for the unrighteous, that He might bring you to YaHuWaH; being put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the Ruwach haQadosh;  3:19 with which He also went across and made a proclamation to the ruwachs that were under guard -- 3:20 who has previously been noncompliant during the one favorable period in which YaHuWaH waited patiently (hoped for their repentance) in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is only eight beings, were brought safely through the deluge of water. 3:21 And you also, by a like figure, are made alive by immersion (not when you wash your bodies from filth, but when you confess YaHuWaH with a pure conscience), and by the resurrection of YaHuWSHuWaH haMashiyach, 3:22 Who is at the right-hand-side of YaHuWaH, having crossed over into heaven, Messengers and authorities and powers being made subject to Him.

4:1 Forasmuch then as haMashiyach suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves also with the same mind; for everyone who is dead in his body has ceased from all sins;

Left sinning behind: restrained sin or been released from sin, perhaps due to physical death itself (as the Aramaic takes it), but alternately through the added maturity that the experience of undergoing the suffering brings (Heb. 12:12ff)—which seems to be the intent according to the verse 2. This is the meaning of the immersion seen in 3:21.

 4:2 that you no longer should live the rest of your time in the flesh for the lusts of men, but for the will of YaHuWaH . 4:3 For we have spent enough of our past time walking in lewdness, lusts, drunken binges, orgies, carousings, and abominable idolatries. 4:4 They think it is strange that you don’t run with them into the same excess of riot, blaspheming: 4:5 who will give account to YaHuWaH Who is ready to judge the living and the dead. 

4:6 For on this account the announcement is made even to the dead, that they might be judged indeed as men in the flesh, but live according to YaHuWaH in the ruwach. 4:7 But the end of all things is near. Therefore be of sound mind, self-controlled, and sober in prayer. 4:8 And above everything else having love among yourselves that stretches itself to do what the others need most, because looking out for one another's best interest will cover a great number of errors (Prov. 10:12). 4:9 Be hospitable to one another without grumbling. 4:10 As each has received a gift, employ it in serving one another, as good managers of the favour of YaHuWaH in its various forms.  4:11 If anyone speaks, let it be as it were the very words of YaHuWaH. If anyone serves, let it be as of the strength which YaHuWaH supplies, that in all things Aluahiym may be esteemed through YaHuWSHuWaH haMashiyach, to Whom belong the esteem and the dominion forever and ever. Oh Yes.

4:12 Beloved, don’t be astonished at the fiery trial which has come upon you, to test you, as though a strange thing happened to you. 4:13 But because you are partakers of haMashiyach’s sufferings, rejoice; that at the revelation of His splendor you also may rejoice with exceeding joy. 4:14 If you are insulted for the Name of haMashiyach, you are blessed; because the Ruwach of splendor and of YaHuWaH is coming to rest over you. On their part He is blasphemed, but on your part He is esteemed.  4:15 For let none of you suffer as a murderer, or a thief, or an evil doer, or a meddler in other men’s matters. 4:16 But if one of you suffers for being a Natsarim, let him not be ashamed; but let him praise YaHuWaH in this matter. 4:17 For the time has come for judgment to begin with the household of Aluahiym. If it begins first with us, what will happen to those who don’t obey the Good News of YaHuWaH?

Begin from the household (or house) of Aluahiym: an allusion to Yehezq’al 9:6, in which the righteous are sealed before the Easter sunrise-service celebrants are marked for destruction. (Trimm) Glad proclamation: of amnesty for those who left His covenant and mingled with the Gentiles, if they will return to Him now. Comply with: the Good News is not just something to be believed, but to be obeyed, and this includes leaving behind that paganism that has become “married” to the true Hebraic observance of Yahuwah's feasts. (Compare Ezra 10).

4:18 “If it is hard for the righteous to be saved, what will happen to the wicked and the sinner?” 

“If the righteous on the earth receives his due, how much more the wicked and the errant?”  [Proverbs 11: 31]

4:19 Therefore let them also who suffer according to the will of YaHuWaH in doing good entrust their souls to Him, as to a faithful Creator.

(What establishment clergy missed? (YirmeYahuw 23, Yehezqel  34)

5:1 I implore the elders among you, as a fellow elder, and a witness of the sufferings of haMashiyach, who am also a partaker of the splendor that shall be revealed. 

Elders: the term has to do with seniority, often of age, but sometimes simply of maturity. (Compare Qoheleth/Eccles. 4:13; 1 Tim. 4:11-12.) Someone with more skill in Torah is always the elder; the immature are not permitted to lead. (1 Tim. 3:6) Honor: or authority; Kefa had already been told that he would be on one of the twelve thrones of judgment in Ysra'al (Mat. 19:28). But he was passing on to them the order from the top: “Feed My sheep.” (Yahuwch. 21:15ff) He had grasped YaHuWSHuWaH's teaching that the leaders of His Kingdom were not to take their cues from the way the Gentiles ruled, but that the greatest would be those who serve (Mat. 20:25ff):

5:2 Shepherd the flock of YaHuWaH which is among you, exercising oversight, not under compulsion, but voluntarily, not for dishonest gain, but willingly; 5:3 neither as lording it over those entrusted to you, but making yourselves examples to the flock. 5:4 When the Chief Shepherd is revealed, you will receive the crown of splendor that doesn’t fade away.

Chief Shepherd: see Yehezqel 34:11-15; Aramaic, Rabbi Shepherd. Crown: wreath or garland, as presented to the winners of a race or victors in war—which would wither. Yet these crowns will ultimately be cast at YaHuWaH's feet. (Rev. 4:10)  

5:5 Likewise, you younger ones, be subject to the elder. Yes, all of you belt yourselves together with humility, since YaHuWaH "sets Himself against those who place themselves above others, but grants favor to those who do not rise far from the ground. (Prov. 3:34)

Mutually subjected to one another: i.e., each submit his own interests to that of the whole body. Humility: the deep recognition of how much less important each individual is than the whole group. The compound word here means “keeping oneself near the ground, bowed at the waist”. True humility, though, is not always wallowing in our inferiority, but recognizing who we are (what are giftings are and are not), and fulfilling the particular responsibilities He has given each of us. (Gal. 6:4-5)

5:6 Humble yourselves therefore under the Mighty Hand of YaHuWaH, that He may exalt you in due time; 5:7 casting all your doubts on Him, because it matters to Him concerning you.

5:8 Be sensible, be constantly watchful, because your adversary the accuser, walks around like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour.

Sensible: or sober, not throwing self-control to the wind in an attempt to escape the reality of our suffering. We need to remain in our right mind, because there is a “wrong mind” that wars against it and will look for any foot in the door. Watchful: not slacking off but keeping one’s caution and suspicion up at all times; Aramaic, remind! Adversary: a courtroom term, meaning one who wants to sue you. We must not show up in the courtroom drunk, but be alert for the weakness in his case. Yahuwshuwah found a loophole in his right to the earth, and thereby sued him for the keys of death, but haSatan still tries to get us to walk in sin so that he will again have a claim on us. Even if externally we look well-guarded, our opponent is aware of our weaknesses, so we must keep our eyes open. Prowls: or simply, walks around. In Iyob 1:7; 2:2, we see him going to and fro throughout the earth; indeed he begins with an accusation, which leads to much suffering for that faithful man.

5:9 Withstand him steadfast in your belief, knowing that your brothers who are in the world are undergoing the same sufferings. 5:10 Moreover, the Aluahiym of all favour - the One Who is calling you into His age-abiding splendor in haMashiyach YaHuWSHuWaH, after you have suffered a little while, restore, establish, strengthen, and settle you. 5:11 The splendor and dominion belong to Him into the aeons of the ages. (1 Chron. 29:11-13) Trustworthy indeed!

Restore: has the connotation of making adjustments and repairs. Stabilize: make us a sturdily-built community. (Heb. 13) There is a reason for the pain; it is not just YaHuWaH’s—or haSatan’s—whim, but is designed to bring reparation both to us and for the evil in the world. (Heb. 12:5-13) He is speaking specifically to younger people, and suffering is especially effective in one’s youth (Lam. 3:27), to bring us to maturity.

5:12 Through Silvanus, our faithful brother, as I consider him, I have written to you briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true favour of YaHuWaH in which you stand. 5:13 The fellow-chosen one in Babel,  greets you; and so does Markos, my son. 

Fellow-chosen: Aramaic, the assembly of the chosen. Babel (Babylon) was where most of the Jewish sages stayed after the captivity was over, and the more widely-circulated version of the Talmud was compiled there. Perhaps a significant following for Yahuwshuwah was drawn from among the Jews there as well as in Yahrushalom.

 5:14 Greet one another with a kiss of affectionate love. Shalom be to you all who are in haMashiyach YaHuWSHuWaH. So may it be indeed!