The Tetragrammaton  =  hwhy = YaHuWaH


Introduction:

YirmeYahuw, traditionally called Jeremiah in English, was a priest, and therefore from the tribe of Lewi, and a reluctant prophet due to his young age. He prophesied beginning almost 100 years after the fall of the Northern Kingdom (Ysra'al), just after YoshiYahu’s widespread reforms, and just prior to the fall of the Southern Kingdom (Yahuwdah). The reigns spanned were the fifth-last and (skipping the three-month reign of Yehoachaz) the final three kings of the Southern Kingdom. (Yehoyachin is not mentioned in 1:3, but he reigned for three months between the reigns of Yahuwyaqim and TzidqiYahuw.) The time frame was 628 B.C.E. and from 609 through 586 B.C.E. (2 Kings 22-25; 2 Chron. 34-36) During this time YoshiYahuw was killed for meddling in Par'oh Nekho’s military affairs, his son Yahuwachaz was taken to Egypt, Nebukhadnetzar of Babel made Yahuwdah a vassal, Yahuwyaqim rebelled and was then plagued with Chaldean, Aramean, Mow'abite, and Ammowniy raiders, Nebukhadnetzar again besieged Yahrushalom, Yahuwyaqim surrendered and was taken captive to Babel along with the temple and royal treasures (to be imprisoned 37 years, then treated well by the Babylonians until he died, as per 52:31). TzidqiYahuw was installed in his place, until he too rebelled and Yahrushalom was burned and the walls broken down. This particular YirmeYahuw is also mentioned in the 2 Chronicles 36 account, but that this was a common name in his generation is evident from several others mentioned throughout the books of Kings, Chronicles, and Nechemyah, including the grandfather of King Yehoachaz.

YirmeYahuw - His name means “YaHuWaH will raise up” or “appoint” One of the priests: Aramaic, one of the leaders of the course of the priests (as listed in 1 Chron. 24:1-19). 2 Kings 22:4 mentions a high priest by this name only 5 years after the time the book begins. So if YirmeYahuw was his firstborn, he would be next in line to be high priest. Anathoth, today called Anata, sits atop a hill about 5 km. outside Yahrushalom and is visible from the road to Yericho.


Rev. 19:13  ...... and having been dressed in a robe dyed red in blood - and His Name is called: “The Word of YaHuWaH.  


1:1 The words of YirmeYahuw the son of  ChilqiYahuw, of the priests who were in Anathowth in the land of Binyamin: 1:2 to whom the Word of YaHuWaH came in the days of YoshiYahuw the son of Amown, sovereign of Yahuwdah, in the thirteenth year of his reign.


This is five years after YoshiYahuw began to seek Yahuwah and five years before he had the Temple repaired and the Book of the Torah was found. (2 Chron. 36)


 1:3 It came also in the days of Yahuwyaqim the son of YoshiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah, to the end of the eleventh year of TsidqiYahuw, the son of YoshiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah, to the carrying away of Yahrushalom captive in the fifth month. 


Eleventh: the Hebrew number is in the form of an afterthought, an extra added after ten, rather than the usual number for eleven, probably since he did not complete the full year as king, since he himself was taken captive. Interestingly, the reigns of the last four kings of Yahuwdah lasted, respectively, three months, eleven years, three months, and eleven years.


1:4 Now the Word (debar) of YaHuWaH came to me, saying, 


[The Word of YaHuWaH… saying: This is not redundant if it refers to the visible manifestation of YaHuWaH known in Aramaic as His Memra (living Word) and which was later embodied as YaHuWSHuWaH the Anointed. (Yoch. 1:14) ... Rev. 19:13  ...... and having been dressed in a robe dyed red in blood - and His Name is called: “The Word of YaHuWaH.] 


1:5 “Before I created you in the womb, I selected you. Before you were born, I set you apart. I appointed you a prophet concerning the nations.”


[I set you apart: YaHuWSHuWaH is described as being ordained before the foundation of the world  - (1 Kepha 1:20  "Who was foreknown indeed before the foundation of the world, but was revealed at the end of times for your sake, 1:21 Who through Him are believers in the Mighty One, Who raised Him from the dead, and gave Him esteem; so that your belief and hope might be in YaHuWaH." --- - then raised up (related to YirmeYahuw’s name), and we who are in Him were chosen then as well. (Eph. 1:4  Long ago, even before He made the world, YaHuWaH loved us and chose us in the Anointed to be Set-apart and without fault in His eyes.)



To the nations: yet the whole book is essentially addressed to Yahuwdah and Ysra'al. Yet Irish tradition (The Book of Wars) says that after the deportation of Yahrushalom to Babel, YirmeYahuw took the daughter of King Tzidqiyahu to Ireland (an area colonized by the Phoenician alliance, of which Yahuwdah had been a part) and founded cities there, chiefly with the tribe of Menashe. One of the families mentioned there was named Machiri—the Hebrew name for the Machirites, descendants of one of Menashe’s grandsons. Perhaps this book was only the “warm-up” for that prophetic role.


 1:6 Then I said, “Ah, Master YaHuWaH! Behold, I don’t know how to speak; for I am a child (too young).”

1:7 But YaHuWaH said to me, “Don’t say, ‘I am a child;’ for to whoever I shall send you, you shall go, and whatever I shall command you, you shall speak. 1:8 Don’t be afraid because of them; for I AM with you to deliver you,” says YaHuWaH. Then YaHuWaH stretched out His Hand, and touched it to my mouth; and YaHuWaH said to me, “See, I have put My Words in your mouth. 


Stretched out His hand: or “sent forth His Arm [i.e., the Mashiyach] and had Him touch my mouth.” Compare YashaYahuw 6.


1:10 See, I have this day set you over the nations and over the kingdoms, (and over the House of Ysra'al) to pluck up and to break down and to destroy and to overthrow, to build and to plant.”


Plant: or establish. He would cut things out as a doctor does (removing a cancer so the body can survive), not as a butcher does. The pattern of tearing down is how a forest is cleared to plant a field and how a foundation is dug before the house can be built upward. Before we could begin acting as Ysra'al again, we too had to cut down many false interpretations of Scripture that we had nurtured into large trees in the past. The Aramaic adds “and over the House of Ysra'al” before the last two phrases. Compare Ecclesiastes 3:10, which says there is a season for all these things (perhaps one reason the almond, which heralds the season, is chosen as the imagery here):


 1:11 Moreover the Word of YaHuWaH came to me, saying, “YirmeYahuw, what do you see?” I said, “I see a Branch/stick from an almond tree 


(prominent in the making of the menorah and in Bemidar 17:8 It happened on the next day, that Moshah went into the tent of the testimony; and behold, the rod of Aharown for the house of Lewi was budded, and put forth buds, and produced blossoms, and bore ripe almonds.).” [ The almond is also called the “resurrection tree” because it is the first to bloom after the “death” of winter. But it is the last tree to bear fruit, so it is a picture of the two comings of Anointed. ..... There are two times during which the almond nut is edible. First, during its green stage, after which it is again inedible until it reaches its dry stage (possibly alluded to in Luke 23:31 "For if they do these things in the green tree, what will be done in the dry?” )  Interestingly enough, in light of the note on v. 5, the only place in Europe that almond trees grow is in Ireland and the British Isles.


1:12 Then said YaHuWaH to me, “You have seen well; for I watch over My Word to perform it.” (YaHuWSHuWaH is His Word and the Menorah.)


Keep watch: the root word for “almond tree” in v. 11, so this is a play on words as a memory aid. The almond tree is called the “watched tree” its blossoming alerts us to the fact that it is time to plant barley because the new festival year, which depends on the barley being at the right stage, will begin soon. Keep watch over: could also be translated “awaken” or “alert”, thus, “I will alert My Word to perform” (i.e., He will call on YaHuWSHuWaH, His living Word, to act; compare YashaYahuw 50:4 where He says Yahuwah “awakens” Him morning by morning). After all, YaHuWSHuWaH is the one who sowed the Northern Kingdom in tears. (Mat. 13:37) 


1:13 The Word of YaHuWaH came to me the second time, saying, “What do you see?”

I said, “I see a seething caldron; and its face is from the face of the north.”


A seething caldron: Aramaic, a king who seethes like a caldron. Face of the north: before the hidden place, or from the place where something lurks undiscovered; Aramaic, the arrangement of his troops are advancing from the direction of the north. This repetition of the word “face” emphasizes to YirmeYahuw that though his opponents have threatening faces, Yahuwah has His own answer to this—faces that are meaner still. Compare v. 17 and YaHuWSHuWaH’s warning not to fear those who could kill the body, but One who can destroy both body and soul. (Mat. 10:28)


1:14 Then YaHuWaH said to me, “Out of the north evil shall break out on all the inhabitants of the Land. 


Judgment often comes out of the north in Scripture. Perhaps this relates to the “Big Dipper” constellation being so juxtaposed with the North Star.


1:15 For, behold, I shall call all the families of the kingdoms of the north,” says YaHuWaH; “and they shall come, and they shall each set his throne at the entrance of the gates of Yahrushalom, and against all its walls all around, and against all the cities of Yahuwdah. (not yet fulfilled in the fullest sense) 1:16 I shall utter My judgments against them touching all their wickedness, in that they have forsaken Me, and have burned incense to other mighty ones, and bowed down [been enslaved] to the works of their own hands. (things that they have made.)

1:17 “You therefore tie together your slack garments, and arise, and speak to them all that I command you. Do not let yourself  'go to pieces' because of their faces, or else I may break you 'to pieces' in front of their faces.


Tie together your slack garments: an idiom much like our “roll up your sleeves”; i.e., “Get to work”, securing anything that would slow you down. Aramaic, strengthen (your loins). Do not go to pieces: notice Yahuwah’s use of the same phrase in reply again (as in v. 13); Aramaic, do not hold back from reproving them. 


 1:18 For, behold, I have made you this day a fortified city, and an iron pillar, and bronze walls, against the whole Land, against the sovereigns of Yahuwdah, against its princes, against its priests, and against the people of the Land. 1:19 They shall fight against you; but they shall not prevail against you; for I AM with you,” says YaHuWaH, “to deliver you.”


I am with you: Aramaic, My Memra (living Word) will be at your assistance. In addition to the calling YirmeYahuw had since before His birth (v. 5), he now had this promise to uphold him throughout the trials he was about to experience because of his faithfulness. We, too, as Ysra'al, have a calling that precedes our birth which our ancestors agreed we would live by, and we also have countless promises that those who remain faithful through the coming time of trouble will be delivered (though imprisoned in the process) and inherit the Land which will again be like the Garden of Eden. What more incentive could we be offered to be bold and endure the short-lived attacks that the enemy tries to slip in before the throes of his defeat become obvious to all.


2:1 The Word of YaHuWaH came to me, saying, 2:2 “Go, and cry in the ears of Yahrushalom, saying, ‘Thus says YaHuWaH, “I remember for you the kindness of your youth, the love of your weddings; how you went after Me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown.  2:3 Ysra'al was Set-apart to YaHuWaH, the first-fruits of His increase. All who devour him shall be held guilty. Evil shall come on them,”’ says YaHuWaH.”

2:4 Hear the Word of YaHuWaH, O House of Ya'aqob, and all the families of the House of Ysra'al!


[House of Ysra'al: already in exile at this point, except for a small token remnant who had left Yarab’am’s jurisdiction and joined Yahuwdah (2 Chron. 11:14-16), so, this word has now come down to us as well.] 1:18 Of His Own will He brought us forth by the Word of Truth [YaHuWSHuWaH], that we should be the first-fruits of all He created.


2:5 Thus says YaHuWaH, “What unrighteousness have your fathers found in Me, that they have gone far from Me, and have gone after empty hopes, and have become empty themselves? 


And as Ysra'al mixed with the nations and became gentiles like the nations themselves, their descendants have to come back now and confess that their ancestors inherited lies, vanity, and things that are unprofitable. (16:19)


2:6 Neither did they say, ‘Where is YaHuWaH Who brought us up out of the land of Mitsrayim, Who led us through the wilderness, through a land of deserts and of pits, through a land of drought and of the shadow of death, through a land that none passed through, and where no man lived?’ 2:7 I brought you into a plentiful Land, to eat its fruit and its goodness; but when you entered, you defiled My Land, and made My Heritage an abomination. 2:8 The priests didn’t say, ‘Where is YaHuWaH?’ Nor did those who handle the Torah know Me! The rulers also transgressed against Me, and the prophets prophesied by Ba'al's (the lord's) influence, and walked after things that do not benefit.

2:9 “Therefore I shall yet contend with you,” says YaHuWaH, “and I shall contend with your children’s children. 2:10 For pass over to the islands of Kittiy, and see; and send to Qedar, and consider diligently; and see if there has been such a thing. 2:11 Has a nation changed its mighty ones, which really are no mighty ones? But My people have changed My Qabod for that which does not profit.

2:12-13 “Be appalled, O heavens [shamu shamayim], at this, and be horribly afraid. Be very desolate,” says YaHuWaH.  “For My people have committed two evils: they have forsaken Me, the Spring of Living Waters, [YaHuWSHuWaH - Yahuwchanan 7:37-38 & 4:10] and cut them out cisterns [explanations], broken cisterns, that can hold no water (truth of His Word).


Cisterns: the root word also means “explanations”. Indeed, our own excuses for why we practiced Sunday worship, Christmas, Easter, etc., simply did not hold water. When we tried to pour His living water into them, they acted like sieves. It is bad enough to forsake Yahuwah, but to replace Him with something of our own making is even worse.


 2:14 Is Ysra'al a servant? If he is born in the house, why has he been plundered?  2:15 The young lions have roared at him, and yelled. They have made his Land waste. His cities are burned up, without inhabitant. 2:16 The children also of Noph and Tachpanches have broken the crown of your head.

2:17 “Haven’t you procured this to yourself, in that you have forsaken YaHuWaH your Aluahiym, when He led you by the Way? 2:18 So what is there for you on the road to Mitsrayim? [christianity] To drink the waters of the Shiychowr? [false teachings of churchanity] Or what is there for you toward the road to Ashshuwr [Babel]? To drink the waters of the River? (Perath) [wine of Babel]

2:19 “Your own Wickedness shall correct you, and your backsliding shall reprove you. Know therefore and see that it is an evil and a bitter thing in that you have forsaken YaHuWaH your Aluahiym, and that My Fear (a feeling of Awe/Reverence/Fear - Yirah - a Ruwach of YaHuWaH) is not in you,” says the Sovereign, YaHuWaH Master of Armies . 2:20 “For of old time I have broken your yoke, and burst your bonds of chastisement; yet you said, ‘I shall not cross over!,’ for on every high hill and under every green tree you stooped over as a prostitute! 2:21 Yet I had planted you a choice vine, all of it a reliable seed. How then have you turned into the degenerate shoots of a foreign vine to Me? (Psalms 80; Yahuwchanan 15:1-6; YashaYahuw 27:10) 


There is another pun here: “choice vine” is soreq, but it had turned out to be surey (degenerate shoots).


2:22 For though you wash yourself with lye, and use much soap, yet your iniquity is marked before Me,” says the Master YaHuWaH.

2:23 “How can you say, ‘I am not defiled. I have not gone after the Ba'aliym’? See your way in the deep gorge. Admit what you have done! You are like a swift dromedary crossing back over her own tracks; 2:24 a wild donkey (Ysra'al) used to the wilderness, that snuffs up the wind in her desire. When she is in heat, who can turn her away? All those who seek her shall not weary themselves. In her month, they shall find her.

2:25 “Keep your leg from being bare, and your throat from thirst. But you said, ‘It is  hopeless. No, for I have loved strangers, and I shall go after them.’ 2:26 As the thief is ashamed when he is found, so is the House of Ysra'al ashamed; they, their sovereigns, their princes, and their priests, and their prophets; 2:27 who tell a piece of wood, ‘You are my father;’ and to a stone, ‘You have brought me out:’ for they have turned their back to Me, and not their face; but in the time of their trouble they shall say, ‘Arise, and deliver us.’

2:28 “But where are your mighty ones that you have made for yourselves? Let them arise, if they can, and deliver you in the time of your trouble: for according to the number of your cities so are your mighty ones, Yahuwdah.

2:29 “Why do you complain to Me? You all have transgressed against Me,” says YaHuWaH.

2:30 “I have struck your children in vain. They received no correction. Your own sword has devoured your prophets, like a destroying lion. 2:31 O generation, consider the Word of YaHuWaH. Have I been a wilderness to Ysra'al? Or a land of thick darkness? Why do My people say, ‘We have broken loose [are in charge]. We shall come to You no more?’


2:32 “Can a virgin forget her ornaments, or a bride her attire? Yet My people have forgotten Me for days without number. 2:33 How well you prepare your way to seek love! Therefore you have taught even the wicked women your ways. 2:34 Also the blood of the beings of the innocent poor is found in your skirts. You did not find them breaking in; but in spite of all these things, 2:35 “ you say, ‘I am innocent. Surely His anger has turned away from me.’“Behold, I shall judge you, because you say, ‘I have not sinned.’  2:36 Why do you go about so much to change your way? You shall be ashamed of Mitsrayim also, as you were ashamed of Ashshuwr. 2:37 From there also you shall go forth, with your hands on your head; for YaHuWaH has rejected those in whom you trust, and you shall not prosper with them.


Hands on your head: Aramaic, the shame of your sins will be upon your head. You have trusted as allies those who are aliens and know nothing about Yahuwah; they will indeed turn on you.


3:1 “Aluahiym said, ‘If a man puts away his wife, and she goes from him, and become another man’s, shall he return to her again?’ Wouldn’t that land be greatly polluted? But you have played the prostitute with many companions [other nations]; and would you return to Me?” says YaHuWaH.


The command in question is set forth in Deut. 24:4. Companions: literally, those of the same flock; the Aramaic Targum explains that this refers to nations. So Yahuwdah was considering the other nations as its equal, when in Yahuwah’s eyes they are not to be in the same category. (Num. 23:9) 


3:2 “Lift up your eyes to the bare heights, and see! Where have you not been lain with? You have sat for them by the ways, as an Arabian in the wilderness. You have polluted the Land with your prostitution and with your wickedness.


Arab: a Bedouin prostitute, in this case; remember they were not yet Muslims at this time, so their character was undoubtedly much less subdued even than it is now. Polluting: the term could even mean “defecating on”. He insists on the camp in which His presence resides being kept free of excrement (Deut. 23:12-14), and the same concept extends metaphorically to His entire Land.


 3:3 Therefore the heavy rains have been withheld, and there has been no spring rain; yet you have a prostitute’s forehead, you refused to be ashamed.


Ample warning of this is given in Deut. 11:16-17; now it was coming to pass as it had in the days of AliYahuw. Forehead: Aramaic, impudence (immodesty); LXX, shamelessness. Be ashamed: Aramaic, humble herself. Yahuwah calls Himself Ysra'al’s husband (YashaYahuw 54:5), so going after any other Aluahiym is adultery or prostitution. The forehead is the place Yahuwah’s name (Ex. 28:36-38) and where His commandments belong (Deut. 11:18). A harlot says just anyone can write his name on her head, if he gives her what she wants. (Compare Rev. 13:16; 17:5) But we do the same if we excuse our compromises by saying, “I only did what I had to do.” And Colossians 3:5 reveals that even covetousness is a form of idolatry. So we are indeed guilty of the same.


 3:4 Shall you not from now on cry to Me, ‘My Father, You are the guide of my youth?’

3:5 “‘Shall He retain His anger forever? Shall He keep it to the end?’ Behold, you have spoken and have done evil things, and have had your way.”

3:6 Moreover, YaHuWaH said to me in the days of YoshiYahuw the sovereign, “Have you seen that which backsliding Ysra'al has done? She has gone up on every high mountain and under every green tree, and there has played the prostitute. 3:7 I said after she had done all these things, ‘She shall return to Me;’ but she didn’t return; and her treacherous sister Yahuwdah saw it. 3:8 And I saw that for all the causes for which backsliding Ysra'al had committed adultery, I had put her away and given her a bill of divorce, yet treacherous Yahuwdah, her sister, didn’t fear; but she also went and played the prostitute. [cf.Yash. 50:1; Yez.16] 3:9 It happened that through her frivolous whoring, that the Land was polluted, and she committed adultery with stones and with stocks. 3:10 Yet for all this her treacherous sister, Yahuwdah, has not returned to Me with her whole heart, but falsely/deceitfully,” says YaHuWaH.

3:11 YaHuWaH said to me, “Backsliding Ysra'al has shown herself more righteous than treacherous Yahuwdah. [Yehezqel 23:1-49] 3:12 Go, and proclaim these words toward the north, and say, ‘Return, you backsliding Ysra'al,’ says YaHuWaH; ‘I shall not look in anger on you; for I am merciful,’ says YaHuWaH. ‘I shall not keep anger forever. 

 

North: i.e., toward Ashur (Assyria), by whom the Northern Kingdom had been exiled. Note that the unfaithfulness of Yahuwdah (v.11) is one reason He has had mercy on the Northern Kingdom. Here He uses the same shock treatment as in YaHuWSHuWaH’s parables of the two sons (Mat. 21:29) and the P’rush and the Tax-Collector (Luke 18:14), and Sha'ul’s comments in Romans 1-2 about the Gentiles (see note on v. 17 below) proving to be more obedient to the Torah’s demands, though they had turned away from the written Torah. The intent is to provoke Yahuwdah to jealousy. (Deut. 32:16; Rom. 11:11)


3:13-14 Only acknowledge your iniquity, that you have transgressed against YaHuWaH your Aluahiym, and have scattered your ways to the strangers under every green tree, and you have not obeyed My Voice,’ says YaHuWaH.” “Return, backsliding children,” says YaHuWaH; “for I am married to you. I shall take you one from a city, and two from a clan, and I shall bring you to Tsiyown. 


I am married to you: Aramaic, I have taken pleasure in you. One from a city, two from a family: this is indeed how we are seeing the first-fruits of the return of the Northern Kingdom taking place. Though many more are descendants of the Northern Kingdom by blood, Yahuwah said He would return only a remnant.


3:15 I shall give you shepherds according to My heart, who shall feed you with knowledge and understanding. 3:16 It shall come to pass, when you are multiplied and increased in the Land, in those days,” says YaHuWaH, “they shall say no more, ‘The Ark of the Covenant of YaHuWaH!’ neither shall it come to mind; neither shall they remember it; neither shall they miss it; neither shall it be made any more.


This has not yet occurred, for the Ark is still being looked for by some, including archaeologists. Miss it: or more literally, visit it. Be made: Aramaic, they will no longer wage war with it (idolatrously, as in the days of the high priest Eli). In any case, it will not be sought out as an object of worship.


3:17 At that time they shall call Yahrushalom ‘The throne of YaHuWaH;’ and all the nations shall be gathered to it, to the Name of YaHuWaH, to Yahrushalom. [33:16 In those days shall Yahuwdah be liberated, and Yahrushalom shall dwell safely; and this is the Name by which she shall be called: YaHuWaH is our Righteousness.] Neither shall they walk any more after the stubbornness of their evil heart. 


Nations: In context, the tribes of backslidden Ysra'al, who by the time of YaHuWSHuWaH had been declared to be Gentiles for all intents and purposes by the Sanhedrin. This is the background for the understanding of most Renewed Covenant references to ”Gentiles”. What is twisted started out straight, and will be straightened out again, as indicated by the pet name Yahuwah gives to Ysra'al when all the tribes are together: Yeshurun (“they will be straight/level/upright”).


 3:18 In those Days the House of Yahuwdah shall walk with the House of Ysra'al, and they shall come together out of the land of the north to the Land that I gave for an inheritance to your fathers.


Walk with: in the sense of being “added onto”; Aramaic, associate with. Halachah means “the way we walk” (i.e., walk out the Torah in specific ways). Now Efrayim, still envious of Yahuwdah by and large, is walking according to Yahuwdah’s halachah, but as we become more established in Torah, we will overtake Yahuwdah to the extent that this envy will no longer be felt (YashaYahuw 11). Here it even appears that the roles will be reversed. (Compare Tzef. 3; Zech. 10:6-7.) Come together: one reason all of Ysra'al had to be brought into Mitsrayim—so they could all return to the Land together, and it appears it will be this way again.


3:19 “And I Myself said, ‘ How can I set you among the children and give you a pleasant Land, a goodly heritage among the hosts of the nations?’  I thought you would call Me “My Father ,” and not turn away from following Me.’


I.e., the only way we can again qualify to be among the recipients of this promise is to return to being all we were originally meant to be as Ysra'al, “forsaking all others”


3:20 “Surely as a wife treacherously departs from her husband, so you have dealt treacherously with Me, House of Ysra'al,” says YaHuWaH. 3:21. A voice is heard on the bare heights, the descendants of Ysra'al begging for mercy; because they have perverted their way, they have forgotten YaHuWaH their Aluahiym. 3:22 Return, you backsliding children, I shall heal your turnings-away. “Look at us! We have come to You; for You are YaHuWaH our Aluahiym.


 [ Now the Northern Kingdom’s response has begun, and continues until the end of the chapter. This is being fulfilled in our own day, 2,600 years after YirmeYahuw prophesied!]


 3:23 Truly in vain is the help that is looked for from the hills, the tumult on the mountains. Truly the deliverance of Ysra'al is in YaHuWaH our Aluahiym. 3:24 For shame has devoured the labor of our fathers from our youth, their flocks and their herds, their sons and their daughters. 3:25 Let us lie down in our shame, and let our confusion cover us; for we have sinned against YaHuWaH our Aluahiym, we and our fathers, from our youth even to this day. We have not obeyed the Voice of YaHuWaH our Aluahiym.”


4:1 “If you shall return, Ysra'al,” says YaHuWaH, “if you shall return to Me, and if you shall put away your abominations out of My sight; then you shall not be removed;  4:2 and you shall swear, ‘As YaHuWaH lives,’ in truth, in justice, and in righteousness, then the nations shall bless themselves in Him, and in Him shall they make their boast.”


4:3 For thus says YaHuWaH to the men of Yahuwdah and to Yahrushalom, “Break up your fallow ground, and don’t sow among thorns. 4:4 Circumcise yourselves to YaHuWaH, and take away the foreskins of your heart, you men of Yahuwdah and inhabitants of Yahrushalom; lest My wrath go forth like fire, and burn so that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings. 4:5 Declare in Yahuwdah, and publish in Yahrushalom; and say, ‘Blow the shofar in the Land!’ Cry aloud and say, ‘Assemble yourselves! Let us go into the fortified cities!’ 4:6 Set up a standard toward Tsiyown. Flee for safety! Don’t wait; for I shall bring evil from the north, and a great destruction.”  [Yom Teruach terminology]

4:7 A lion [Babel] is gone up from his thicket, and a destroyer of nations; he is on his way, he is gone forth from his place, to make your Land desolate, that your cities be laid waste, without inhabitant. 4:8 For this gird yourself with sackcloth, lament and wail; for the fierce anger of YaHuWaH hasn’t turned back from us. 4:9 “It shall happen at That Day,” says YaHuWaH, “that the heart of the sovereign shall perish, and the heart of the princes; and the priests shall be astonished, and the prophets shall wonder.”

4:10 Then I said, “Ah, Master YaHuWaH! Surely You have greatly deceived this people and Yahrushalom, saying, ‘You shall have peace;’ whereas the sword reaches to the heart.” (i.e., have let them be deceived)

4:11 At that time shall it be said to this people and to Yahrushalom, “A dazzling wind from the bare heights in the wilderness toward the daughter of My people, not to winnow, nor to cleanse;


Dazzling wind: or glowing; LXX, a ruwach of error. Aramaic, a cold sweeping wind. Barren heights: Aram., heads of the river-courses. Sift: or winnow.


 4:12 but a wind fuller than these shall come for Me. Now I, too, shall also utter judgments against them.”

4:13 Behold, he shall come up as clouds, and his chariots shall be as the whirlwind: his horses are swifter than eagles. Woe to us! For we are ruined. 


He: Aramaic, a king with his troops. This was spoken when Nebuchadnetzar had withdrawn and all the prophets except YirmeYahuw were prognosticating peace.


4:14 Yahrushalom, wash your heart from wickedness, that you may be saved. How long shall your evil thoughts lodge within you? 4:15 For a voice declares from Dan, and publishes evil from the hills of Ephrayim:


 Dan: the northernmost city in Ysra'al, the first place the attackers would become visible, with little warning because of the mountains that block the view when the trade route to Mesopotamia fades from sight. The mountains of Efrayim: often called “the West Bank” today by Ysra'al’s enemies—the area between Ramallah (near Beyth-Al) and Nablus (Sh’khem). From here one can see all the way across the Yarden Valley, the othe direction from which an attack on Yahrushalom would be likely to be staged. The Aramaic specifies more particularly that the references to Dan and the Mountains of Efrayim are alluding to particular idols set up at each of these places. (1 Kings 12:29; Judges 17)


 4:16 “Tell the nations; behold, publish against Yahrushalom, ‘Blockaders come from a far country, and raise their voice against the cities of Yahuwdah. 


Make mention to: or, remind. Blockaders: i.e., besiegers, guards, or possibly observers; it is the same Hebrew word as that used for “Christians” today. Aramaic, robbers like grape-gatherers. Set their noise: or, designate their voice.


4:17 As keepers of a field, they are against her all around, because she has been rebellious against Me,’” says YaHuWaH. 4:18 “Your way and your doings have brought these things to you. This is your wickedness; for it is bitter, for it reaches to your heart.[Numbers 5:18-27 - test of an unfaithful wife]

4:19 My belly! My belly! I am pained at my very heart; my heart is disquieted in me; I can’t hold my peace; because you have heard, O my being, the sound of the shofar, the alarm of war.


YirmeYahuw seems to identify himself with the guilt of his people, though he himself is not the guilty one, for Ysra'al is all one people. Walls of my heart: LXX, sensitive powers of my heart; Aram., support of my heart.


 4:20 Destruction on destruction is cried; for the whole Land is laid waste: suddenly are my tents destroyed, and my hanging-drapes in a moment. 


Tents… hanging-drapes: an allusion to the Tent, symbolizing the Temple, which was to be destroyed. (See also 10:20)


4:21 How long shall I see the standard, and hear the sound of the shofar? 

4:22 “For My people are foolish, they don’t know Me. They are foolish children, and they have no understanding. They are skillful in doing evil, but to do good they have no knowledge.”


 4:23 I inspected the Land, and, behold, it was a chaotic ruin and an empty desolation; and the skys, and they had no light.

 

This is an allusion to when Yahuwah first inspected the earth (the same word as “the Land”), and found it “a chaotic ruin and an empty desolation” (Gen. 1:2), and He brought light into being. Now the actions of His people have brought the order He created to an end. As in Bareshiyth, at one time it had been otherwise, since Bareshiyth picks up after a scene of judgment on rebellious ruwachs.


 4:24 I saw the mountains, and behold, they trembled, and all the hills moved back and forth.


Moving themselves: Aramaic, displaced; LXX, in commotion. This did not take place when Babel came to besiege Yahrushalom. Nothing of this magnitude has happened on earth since 701 B.C.E. (long before YirmeYahuw’s day), so it still has a fulfillment in the days to come when the story resumes.


 4:25 I saw, and behold, there was no man, and all the birds of the sky had fled.


Man: Heb., Adam. As at the flood of Noah, Yahuwah was wondering whether all His work of creation had been futile. There was no one bearing His image anymore. In mystical terms, the man of light had been scattered again. The kingdom had come, and all that remained to make it complete was a marriage ceremony, but the bride could not wait for the wedding and went off with other lovers. So the wedding was off. The Ysra'al that existed as Yahuwah intended had been destroyed, and the shards of light had to be gathered up again. The process had to be started all over. This was begun by YaHuWSHuWaH’s followers. But they dropped the ball also. We need to take warning from this, that it can happen yet again as the option is being given to us once more.


 4:26 I saw, and behold, the fruitful orchard was a wilderness, and all its cities were broken down at the presence of YaHuWaH, and before His fierce anger. 


Fruitful orchard: or, as a proper name, Karmel (a mountain range in an area with the perfect climate for growing many subtropical fruits today as well).


4:27 For thus says YaHuWaH, “The whole Land shall be a desolation; yet shall I not make a full end. 4:28 For this the earth shall mourn, and the skys above be black; because I have spoken it, I have purposed it, and I have not repented, neither shall I turn back from it.”  


Heavens grow dark: probably as a result of heavy volcanic debris in the atmosphere that results from the planet-wide catastrophe being under discussion here. Turn back from it: Aramaic, reconsider it. [The trumpet of Rev. 8 - 4th in particular -8:12]

Bareshiyth 1:1 In the beginning Aluahiym ALEPH TAW  created the heavens and the earth. 1:2 Now the earth became formless and empty ["the earth became tohu and bohu ]. Darkness was on the surface of the deep. 


4:29 Every city flees for the noise of the horsemen and archers; they go into the thickets, and climb up on the rocks: every city is forsaken, and not a man dwells therein. 4:30 You, when you are made desolate, what shall you do? Though you clothe yourself with scarlet, though you deck you with ornaments of gold, though you enlarge your eyes with paint, in vain do you make yourself beautiful; your lovers despise you, they seek your life. [Rev. 17:4] 4:31 For I have heard a voice as of a woman in travail, the anguish as of her who brings forth her first child, the voice of the daughter of Tsiyown, who gasps for breath, who spreads her hands, saying, “Woe is me now! For my being faints because of the murderers.”  

YashaYahuw 27:12 It shall happen in that Day, that  YaHuWaH shall thresh from the flowing stream of the Perath to the brook of Mitsrayim; and you shall be gathered one by one, O children of Ysra'al. 27:13 It shall happen in that Day that a Great Shofar shall be blown (Day of Atonement); and those who were ready to perish in the land of Ashshuwr, and those who were outcasts in the land of Mitsrayim, shall come; and they shall worship  YaHuWaH in the qodesh mountain at Yahrushalom. cf.  Rev. 2:10 & 12:4


5:1 “Run back and forth through the streets of Yahrushalom, and see now, and know, and seek in the broad places of it, if you can find a man, if there are any who does justly, who seeks truth; and I shall pardon her. 


Streets: literally, outdoor spaces; Aramaic, marketplaces. This is reminiscent of Abraham’s pleas that Yahuwah see whether there were not at least ten righteous left in S’dom and Ghamorah, so that He could spare them. (Gen. 18:32) But here, it is Yahuwah doing the initiating, and He would spare it if there is only one person who renders a right verdict (according to His words)! That is how badly He wants to not have to destroy the city of His favor. Instead, everyone did what was right in his own eyes. Later, He did find one man (YaHuWSHuWaH), on account of whom He could pardon us. But today again He is looking for men to set up a Torah-based court so decisive rulings can be made instead of letting things go on as they have been. Right rulings include both gentleness and strength, kindness and severity—in short, knowing what is best for each one in the flock, for some need their legs broken so they will stop wandering, while others need oil poured on their wounds.


5:2 Though they say, ‘As YaHuWaH lives;’ surely they swear falsely.”  (In g_d we trust)

5:3 O YaHuWaH, don’t Your eyes look on Truth? You have stricken them, but they were not grieved. You have consumed them, but they have refused to receive correction. They have made their faces harder than a rock. They have refused to return.


His eyes also go to and fro (v. 1)—not only in Yahrushalom but the whole Land (or earth), looking for someone whose heart is completely His, so He can fully support him. (2 Chron. 16:9) Yet many today who are Ysra'al are resisting the call to act as Ysra'al. In agony: writhing as in the pain of childbirth, or dancing—another way the Psalms tell us to do ruwachual warfare.


5:4 Then I said, “Surely these are the poor. They are foolish; for they don’t know the Way of YaHuWaH, nor the Torah of their Aluahiym. 


Low: or poor, i.e., those who are uneducated and do not know any better. YaHuWSHuWaH said there would always be poor among us (always someone needing to be taught, sheep needing to be fed--Mark 14:7).


5:5 I shall go to the great men, and shall speak to them; for they know the Way of YaHuWaH, and the Torah of their Aluahiym.” But, O, these have with one accord broken the yoke, and burst the bonds.


Distinguished: or great; LXX, rich. Broken the yoke: Aramaic, rebelled from the Torah. Just the same: LXX, with one consent.


 5:6 Therefore a lion out of the forest shall kill them, a wolf of the Arabah shall destroy them, a leopard shall watch against their cities; everyone who goes out there shall be torn in pieces; because their transgressions are many, and their backsliding is increased.


Lion: Babel. Wolf of the Arabah: a similar phrase means “evening wolf” in Habaqquq 1:8 and Tzef. 3:3, and taken this way here by the Aramaic version. Leopard, or perhaps cheetah (because speed is its characteristic): corresponds with the kingdom of Greece, Babel’s second successor, in Daniel 7:6. They have turned away too many times: or, their backslidings have broken their bones into many [pieces]—as in the previous phrase.


5:7 “How can I pardon you? Your children have forsaken Me, and sworn by what are no mighty ones. When I had fed them to the full, they committed adultery, and assembled themselves in throngs at the prostitutes’ houses [Mega churches]. 5:8 They were as fed horses roaming at large: everyone neighed after his neighbor’s wife. 5:9 Shouldn’t I punish them for these things?” says YaHuWaH; “and shouldn’t My being be avenged on such a nation as this?

5:10 “Go up among her vine-rows, and destroy them; but don’t make a full end. Take away her spreading tendrils; for they are not YaHuWaH’s.


Vine-rows: or battlement-walls. Take away her spreading tendrils (offshoots): or, remove her branches—possibly what Sha'ul was alluding to in Rom. 11:17-24; see also Yirm. 11:16. LXX: leave her buttresses, because they belong to Yahuwah. But it seems to relate even more directly to those branches of YaHuWSHuWaH, the Vine, who bear no fruit (Yoch. 15:2). These are people who were “in Him”, yet the Father has taken them away due to unfaithfulness.


 5:11 For the House of Ysra'al and the House of Yahuwdah have dealt very treacherously against Me,” says YaHuWaH.


Both houses were cut off (taken away from the Land, where the root was). Only part of Yahuwdah returned, both after the Babylonian captivity and in our own generation. The penalty is not as unbending in our captivity; how can we truly sing the songs of Tsiyon in a strange land? (Ps. 137) But He is calling us back to where we must be kodesh in order to remain, and thus He has mercifully given us time to prepare by learning what kodesh-ness means while we are still outside the Land, so it may not happen again once we arrive there.


5:12 They have denied YaHuWaH, and said, “It is not Him; neither shall evil come on us; neither shall we see sword nor famine. 5:13 The prophets turn into the wind, and the Word is not in them. Thus shall it be done to them.”


Turn into wind: Aramaic, become nothing. Those who take Christian doctrine to its logical conclusion also end up having none of the actual Word of Yahuwah left since they ruwachualize it away. The root for “word” in Hebrew is “pasture” or a place to feed the sheep. Ear-ticklers are only feeding the sheep with candy.


5:14 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH, Aluahiym of Armies, “Because you speak this word, behold, I shall make My Words in your mouth fire, and this people wood, and it shall devour them. 


A prophet is meant to bring fire, not wind, for His word is a fire. (23:29) The downfall of the Northern Kingdom is that it failed to stoke up the fire when it should. (Hushuwa 7:4) You have said: Here “you” is plural. Your mouth: here “your” is singular (probably referring to YirmeYahuw).


5:15 Behold, I shall bring a nation on you from far, House of Ysra'al,” says YaHuWaH. “It is a mighty nation. It is an ancient nation, a nation whose language you don’t know, neither understand what they say. 


That has endured for an age: an ancient people, or a people of this age. Babel was founded by Nimrod, the great hunter who rebelled against Yahuwah and founded the “world” system (the same as “age” in Hebrew).


5:16 Their quiver is an open tomb, they are all mighty men. 5:17 They shall eat up your harvest, and your bread, which your sons and your daughters should eat. They shall eat up your flocks and your herds. They shall eat up your vines and your fig trees. They shall beat down your fortified cities, in which you trust, with the sword.

5:18 “But even in those days,” says YaHuWaH, “I shall not make a full end with you. 5:19 It shall happen, when you say, ‘Why has YaHuWaH our Aluahiym done all these things to us?’ Then you shall say to them, ‘Just like you have forsaken Me, and served foreign mighty ones in your Land, so you shall serve strangers in a land that is not yours.’


Serve: i.e., be enslaved to. Strangers: literally, those who are estranged or alienated, thus possibly even people from the Northern Kingdom who had left the Covenant and already formed new nations, as many of them did. (Not all were enslaved to Assyria.)


5:20 “Declare this in the House of Ya'aqob, and publish it in Yahuwdah, saying, 5:21 ‘Hear this now, foolish people, and without understanding; who have eyes, and don’t see; who have ears, and don’t hear: 5:22 Don’t you fear Me?’ says YaHuWaH ‘Won’t you tremble at My presence, Who have placed the sand for the bound of the sea, by a perpetual decree, that it can’t pass it? and though its waves [wars] toss themselves, yet they can’t prevail; though they roar [threaten], yet they can’t pass over it.’


Respect, tremble: Coming from a young, inexperienced man like YirmeYahuw, this probably seemed like a joke to those predisposed to reject a message of judgment. Sand: symbolic also of the descendants of Abraham; the sea: symbolic of the Gentile nations. (Compare Zech. 12:3) The nations are limited by Ysra'al. (Deut. 32:8)


5:23 “But this people has a revolting and a rebellious heart; they have revolted and walked away. 5:24 Neither do they say in their heart, ‘Let us now fear YaHuWaH our Aluahiym, Who gives rain, both the former and the latter, in its season; Who preserves to us the appointed weeks of the harvest.’


If the rains come two weeks too early or too late, the crop can be lost. But they thought that as long as He was on time, everything would be all right. But He was saying that they, too, had to be in season if they were to enjoy His blessings. There is a right time for everything. (Eccles. 3; Prov. 15:23) If we are alert to His signs, we will not be caught by surprise. (Mat. 24:42ff) They took the rain for granted, though they would not even be around to eat the harvest it was bringing. (v. 17) The wheat and tares grow in the same season, but some are destroyed (lest they replant themselves) and others are harvested so there can be more. The more we plant, the more people we can feed, unless our appetites are too big. We have to sow the right things to reap the right results (Gal. 6:7), and even the finest vines need pruning. (Yoch. 15:2)


5:25 “Your iniquities have turned away these things, and your sins have withheld good from you.  5:26 For among My people are found wicked men. They watch, as fowlers lie in wait. They set a trap. They catch men. 5:27 As a cage is full of birds, so are their houses full of deceit. Therefore they have become great, and grew rich. 5:28 They have grown fat. They shine; yes, they excel in deeds of wickedness. They don’t plead the cause, the cause of the father less, that they may prosper; and they don’t judge the right of the needy.

5:29 “Shall I not punish for these things?” says YaHuWaH. “Shall not My being be avenged on such a nation as this?

5:30 “An astonishing and horrible thing has happened in the Land. 5:31 The prophets prophesy falsely, and the priests dominate based on who can afford to; and My people love to have it so. And what are you going to do at the end of it?


Who can afford to: literally, according to their hand. This was still going on in YaHuWSHuWaH’s day, for the Romans sold the high priesthood to whomever was the highest bidder, whether or not he was from the lineage Yahuwah had prescribed. Who would stop it if they were the very ones profiting from it? To end it: or, when its end comes.


6:1 “Flee for safety, you children of Binyamin, out of the midst of Yahrushalom, and in Teqowa blow the shofar, and raise up a signal on Bayith ha-Kerem; for evil looks forth from the north, and a great destruction.


Theqoa: from the same root as the next word, “blow”, or trumpet. Theqoa was the prophet Amos' hometown.


 6:2 The comely and delicate one, the daughter of Tsiyown, shall I cut off. 


Aramaic, O beautiful and noble lady, how you have corrupted your ways; therefore the assembly of Tzion is ashamed.


6:3 Shepherds with their flocks shall come to her; they shall pitch their tents against her all around; they shall feed everyone in his place.” [they will assist each other]

6:4 “Prepare war against her; arise, and let us go up at noon. Woe to us! For the day declines, for the shadows of the evening are stretched out.  6:5 Arise, and let us go up by night, and let us destroy her palaces.” 6:6 For YaHuWaH Master of Armies said, “Cut down trees, and cast up a mound against Yahrushalom: this is the city to be called to account; she is wholly oppression in the midst of her. 6:7 As a cistern keeps its waters fresh, so she keeps her wickedness fresh: violence and destruction is heard in her; before Me continually is sickness and wounds. 6:8 Be instructed, Yahrushalom, lest My Ruwach be torn from you; lest I make you a desolation, a Land not inhabited.”


He is not offering to rescind the punishment, but telling them to take the beating and learn from it so they can survive. The two Hebrew words for “teach” mean “to prod” and “to deal blows”, so if we want to learn from Yahuwah, we must prepare to be goaded. If we judge ourselves, we should not need to be judged. (1 Cor. 11:31) YaHuWSHuWaH is the immersion-pool of Ysra'al (17:13; compare Yahuwchanan 8:8), but we are therefore told to wash ourselves. (YashaYahuw 1:16) He makes the provision, but will not do it for us if we make no effort to change. Sycamore figs (Amos 7:14) are inedible if not tended by piercing it with a pin and rubbing it with olive oil. Oil symbolizes the Ruwach of Set-apart-ness, but it will not benefit us unless we are pierced. His rebuke is a favor. We can take the wounds He gives us in the wrong direction, and they will profit us nothing, or we can let it have the effect He wants. (v. 14; Heb. 12:12-13; Ps. 51:8) The affliction is beneficial if by it we learn His ways. (Ps. 119:71) When His judgments are seen in the world, its inhabitants will learn to be righteous; the wicked will not learn when there is favour. (YashaYahuw 26:9-10)


6:9 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, “They shall thoroughly glean the remnant of Ysra'al like a vine. Turn again your hand as a grape gatherer into the baskets.”


I.e., come back for a second round of plundering. Aram., your plague will return.


6:10 To whom shall I speak and testify, that they may hear? Behold, their ear is uncircumcised, and they can’t listen. Behold, the Word of YaHuWaH has become a reproach to them. They have no delight in it.


Uncircumcised: i.e., blocked off by excess flesh so that the hearing is dulled. The term can also mean “uncovered”, seemingly the opposite, but they were opening their ears to the wrong things (letting those who should not speak into our lives, such as gossips and whisperers, have authority there) and not opening them to the right things. Wise reproof is like a golden earring to an obedient ear. (Prov. 25:12) One who had a hole bored into his ear at the doorpost (Heb., mezuzah) to show that he wished to remain with a beneficent master (Ex. 21:6) would traditionally wear a golden earring to show publicly that he receives instruction, rulings, and protection from that household. Yahuwah tells us to write His words on our doorposts. (Deut. 11:20) But those who don’t listen and respond when He calls are numbered for the sword. (YashaYahuw 65:12) Their ear: Notice that this ear is singular, but it belongs to a plural group. They are meant to hear as one unit. This is why YaHuWSHuWaH constantly told those who had an ear (singular) to hear what the Ruwach said. (Rev. 2-3)


6:11 Therefore I am full of the wrath of YaHuWaH. I am weary with holding in.

“I want to pour it out on the children in the street, and on the assembly of young men together; for even the husband with the wife shall be taken, the aged with him who is full of days.

6:12 Their houses shall be turned to others, their fields and their wives together;

for I shall stretch out My hand on the inhabitants of the Land, says YaHuWaH.”

6:13 “For from the least of them even to the greatest of them, everyone is given to covetousness; and from the prophet even to the priest, everyone deals falsely.

6:14 They have healed also the fracture of My people as if it were insignificant, saying, ‘Wholeness, total well-being, shalom!’ when there is no soundness in it.


I.e., they pasted a band-aid over a broken leg, kissed it, and said it was “all better”!


6:15 Were they ashamed when they had committed abomination? No, they were not at all ashamed, neither could they blush. Therefore they shall fall among those who fall; at the time that I visit them, they shall be cast down,” says YaHuWaH.


[In contrast, the Northern Kingdom will be ashamed of its ways (16:19; 31:19).]


6:16 Thus says YaHuWaH, “Stand in the Ways and see, and ask for the old paths, ‘where the good Way is; and walk in it, and you shall find rest for your beings. But they said, ‘We shall not walk in it.’ 


Ask whom? Yahuwah gives wisdom to those who need it. (Ya'aqob 1:5) Ancient: or eternal. Settledness for your souls: Compare YaHuWSHuWaH’s promise of “rest for your souls” in Matt. 11:28-30. His yoke is the same as this ancient path. Perhaps this is why His disciples were originally simply called followers of ”the Way”. (Yoch. 14:6; Acts 9:2; 19:9. 23; 24:14) They pointed many back to it, but again the reunited Ysra'al did not continue in the direction He intended. But again He is bringing many back to it today, for which we praise Him. We will never find settledness when seeking security directly, but if we seek Yahuwah’s kingdom, everything else we need will be provided. (Mat. 6:33) But YaHuWSHuWaH was speaking more directly against those who loaded people down with unnecessary restrictions that went far beyond the intent of the Torah. (Mat. 12) Indeed, one can hardly feel settled when he is always wondering whether his obedience is accepted or not. But YirmeYahuw’s audience was off the scale of obedience altogether:


6:17 I set watchmen over you, saying, ‘Listen to the sound of the shofar!’ But they said, ‘We shall not listen!’ 


[Watchmen: Aramaic, teachers. Yehezqel 33:1-20 reveals that the sound of the shofar signals that it is time to repent, or else war will come against them.]


6:18 Therefore hear, you nations, and know, congregation, what is among them. 6:19 Hear, earth! Behold, I shall bring evil on this people, even the fruit of their thoughts, because they have not listened to My Words; and as for My Instructions, they have rejected it. 


Fruit of their own inventions (thoughts or plans): they are only reaping what they sowed. (Gal. 6:7) He brought witnesses so that no one could accuse Him of giving them what they did not deserve. Instruction: Heb., torah.


 6:20 To what purpose comes there to Me frankincense from Sheba, and the high-quality cinnamon from a far country? Your burnt offerings are not acceptable, nor your slaughterers pleasing to Me.”

6:21 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH, “Behold, I shall lay stumbling blocks before this people. The fathers and the sons together shall stumble against them. The neighbor and his friend shall perish.” 6:22 Thus says YaHuWaH, “Behold, a people comes from the north country. A great nation shall be stirred up from the uttermost parts of the earth. 6:23 They take hold of bow and spear. They are cruel, and have no mercy. Their voice roars like the sea, and they ride on horses, everyone set in array, as a man to the battle, against you, daughter of Tsiyown.”

6:24 We have heard its report; our hands wax feeble: anguish has taken hold of us, and pangs as of a woman in travail. 6:25 Don’t go forth into the field, nor walk by the way; for the sword of the enemy, and terror, are on every side.


YaHuWSHuWaH warns of similar times in Mat. 24:15ff that are yet ahead for us (the time of Ya'aqob’s trouble, also known as the birthpangs of Mashiyach, in context of v. 24), but which can be a reparation for the breaches made during the time being spoken of here, if we pick up where our ancestors left off. When the same temptation comes around again, if we respond in the way He desires this time, what was broken can be salvaged, for the ancient path (v. 16) is also an eternal one, and we can get back onto it today if we repent. Even a fool will remain protected if he stays on the right road. (YashaYahuw 35:8) That is the task before us now.


 6:26 Daughter of My people, gird yourself with sackcloth, and wallow in ashes! Mourn, as for an only son, most bitter lamentation; for the destroyer shall suddenly come on us.


Burlap (sackcloth) and ashes are signs of deep mourning. Only child: or, idiomatically, a favorite. The term was used of Yitzhaq. (Gen. 22:2) When Yahuwdah sees YaHuWSHuWaH returning, they will mourn for Him as for an only child. (Zech. 12:10)


6:27 “I have made you a tester of metals and a fortress among My people; that you may know and scrutinize their way.


Inspector: one who assays metals and places a value on them. Examiner: or restrainer; the word often means a walled fortress. (2 Thess. 2:7) Like Yoseyf, YaHuWSHuWaH was sent to check on how His Father’s tenants were treating what was His. (Mat. 21:33-41) He, too, found insufficient repentance. (Mat. 23:37) Know: Aram., make known. Scrutinize: put to the proof-test.


 6:28 They are all grievous rebels, going about with slanders; they are brass and iron:  all of them deal corruptly.


 [Brass represents the kingdom of Greece, and iron the kingdom of Rome (Dan. 12:32)—the two chief cultures that continue to drive the Western world and the church today, and have indeed brought corruption there. cf. Dani'el 4:20  Cut down the tree, and destroy it; nevertheless leave the stump of the roots of it in the earth, even in a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field; [here we are being told that "Babel" will live on among YaHuWaH's people thru the influence of Greece and Rome.]


 6:29 The bellows blow fiercely; the lead is consumed by the fire: in vain do they go on refining; for the wicked are not drawn off.


When silver is melted down, the lead which may be mixed in is relatively easy to smelt off. But iron and copper have a much higher melting temperature, and when they are mixed together, the total temperature needed to melt the silver is higher. Iron and copper can be removed more easily from gold than silver, for with silver, all have to reach the temperature of vaporization before they are removed. A bellows cannot accomplish this. So only one of the three corrupters has been burned away. The resulting silver may look purer indeed, but if we stop there and think we have arrived, we are thoroughly unacceptable to Him:


 6:30 Men shall call them rejected silver, because YaHuWaH has rejected them.”


Reject: or refuse, here an adjective, not an imperative verb; Aramaic, blemished. He has done all He could, but they have not allowed Him to purify them. Silver is what is used to redeem, and this is Ysra'al’s calling in the world, but it could not serve its purpose since it, too, was corrupted, and thus had to end up on a slag heap. Such silver is sold very cheaply, for Ysra'al had profaned itself. Yet Yahuwah retained a remnant—“seed corn” which He planted again, hoping that the next harvest would produce an edible crop.



7:1 The Word that came to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH, saying, 7:2 “Stand in the gate of YaHuWaH’s House, and proclaim there this word, and say, ‘Hear the Word of YaHuWaH, all you of Yahuwdah, who enter in at these gates to worship YaHuWaH. 7:3 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, Amend your ways and your doings, and I shall cause you to dwell in this place. 7:4 Don’t trust in lying words, saying, This is the Hekal of YaHuWaH, the Hekal of YaHuWaH, the Hekal of YaHuWaH! (you are the Hekal of YaHuWaH! - Lamsa) 7:5 For if you thoroughly amend your ways and your doings; if you thoroughly execute justice between a man and his neighbor; 7:6 if you don’t oppress the foreigner, the father less, and the widow, and don’t shed innocent blood in this Place, neither walk after other mighty ones to your own hurt: 7:7 then shall I cause you to dwell in this Place, in the Land that I gave to your fathers, from of old even forevermore. 7:8 Behold, you trust in lying words, that can’t profit. 7:9 Shall you steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely, and burn incense to Ba'al [the lord], and walk after other mighty ones that you have not known, 7:10 and come and stand before Me in this House, which is called by My Name, and say, "We are delivered" [We are saved!] - in order to do all these abominations? 


We are delivered…: This sounds very much like, “We are free from the Law; we can be pardoned, no matter what we do wrong.” His response, in so many words, is, “Will you tell Me this in My own House, just because I did you a favor?” He does not desire just a “confessional”, but true repentance.


7:11-12 Is this House, which is called by My Name, become a den of robbers in your eyes? Behold, I, even I Myself, have seen it, says YaHuWaH.  But go now to My place which was in Shiyloh, where I caused My Name to dwell at the first, and see what I did to it for the wickedness of My people Ysra'al.


Den of robbers: YaHuWSHuWaH quoted this verse in the affirmative when He came and cleansed the Temple of the “leaven” of unjust monetary exchange twice, just before Passover .


 7:13 Now, because you have done all these works, says YaHuWaH, and I spoke to you, rising up early and speaking, but you didn’t hear; and I called you, but you didn’t answer: 7:14 therefore shall I do to the House which is called by My Name, in which you trust, and to the Place which I gave to you and to your fathers, as I did to Shiyloh. 


Shilo is where the Tabernacle had a semi-permanent place with a low foundational wall that has been excavated there by archaeologists .... Just as I did: He made His presence depart. The background for why is found in 1 Shmuel 3-4.


7:15 I shall cast you out of My sight, as I have cast out all your brothers - even the whole seed of Ephrayim. 

 7:16 As for you [YirmeYahuw], don’t pray for this people, neither lift up a cry nor prayer for them, neither make intercession to Me; for I shall not hear you.


You: YirmeYahuw. I.e., don’t even begin to do what Abraham did, because it would break My heart to tell you “No”. Do not stand in the way, for if I relent, Ysra'al will not survive. Let the judgment come so that it can be salvaged. A similar command was given to Shmuel the prophet in regard to King Sha’ul. (1 Shmuel 16) There was no longer a point of contact for Him within one who had rejected His word and deliberately disobeyed.


 7:17 Don’t you see what they do in the cities of Yahuwdah and in the streets of Yahrushalom? 7:18 The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead the dough, to make cakes to the queen of the sky, and to pour out drink offerings to other mighty ones, that they may provoke Me to anger.


Queen of heaven: the Babel goddess Semiramis (later called Astarte, the Egyptian Hathor, the Greek Aphrodite, and Roman Venus) that had the veneer of “the Virgin Mary” pasted over it after Roman religion was mixed with Biblical in what then became the catholic (universal) church. This claim that very different beings are identical is the hallmark of the conglomerate world religion that is taking shape again. Cakes: part of the worship ritual.


 7:19 Do they provoke Me to anger? says YaHuWaH; do they not provoke themselves, to the confusion of their own faces? 7:20 Therefore thus says the Master YaHuWaH: Behold, My anger and My wrath shall be poured out on this Place, on man, and on animal, and on the trees of the field, and on the fruit of the ground; and it shall burn, and shall not be quenched.


 7:21 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Add your burnt offerings to your slaughterers, and eat meat.  7:22 For I didn’t speak to your fathers, nor command them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Mitsrayim, concerning burnt offerings or slaughterers: 7:23 but this thing I commanded them, saying, Listen to My Voice, and I shall be your Aluahiym, and you shall be My people; and walk in all the Way that I command you, that it may be well with you. 7:24 But they didn’t listen nor turn their ear, but walked in their own counsels and in the stubbornness of their evil heart, and went backward, and not forward. 7:25 Since the day that your fathers came forth out of the land of Mitsrayim to this day, I have sent to you all My servants the prophets, daily rising up early and sending them: 7:26 yet they didn’t listen to Me, nor inclined their ear, but made their neck stiff: they did worse than their fathers. 7:27 You shall speak all these Words to them; but they shall not listen to you: you shall also call to them; but they shall not answer you. 7:28 You shall tell them, This is the nation that has not listened to the Voice of YaHuWaH their Aluahiym, nor received instruction: truth is perished, and is cut off from their mouth. 

 7:29- Shear off the hair of your Nazirite consecration and cast it away, and take up a dirge on the barren heights; for YaHuWaH has rejected and let loose the generation of His wrath.


Let loose: paralleled in his depiction with cutting his hair. Perhaps this Nazirite state had been part of YirmeYahuw’s being set apart from his mother’s womb (1:6), and this was the first he had cut his hair. But more probably it was just that he set himself apart for the purpose of delivering this prophecy. The word “Nazir” literally means “an untrimmed vine” (Lev. 25:5); thus a Nazir’s locks are a picture of Yahuwah’s acceptance of Ysra'al. (Yehezqel 5)


 7:30 For the children of Yahuwdah have done that which is evil in My sight, says YaHuWaH: they have set their abominations in the House which has been reputed to have My Name upon it, to defile it. 7:31 They have built the high places by the Topheth (stream) which is in the valley of the Son of Hinnom, to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire; which I didn’t command, nor did it even come into My mind!


Tofeth: may mean “place of burning”, but is identical to a word for “spit”, which is Yahuwah’s opinion of it. It comes from a root word meaning “to beat or drum upon” or “play the tambourine”, which may have been part of the ritual that went on there. The Valley of [the Son of] Hinnom (which means “lamentation”) became corrupted to the Greek Ge-henna, which became an idiom for “hell” because of the constant fires there after it was relegated to being a dumping-ground after the practices mentioned here rendered it unworthy of any nobler use. It formed the southern and western sides of the city of Yahrushalom in ancient times. The Tofeth in particular was at the confluence of the Valley of Hinnom and the Qidron Valley (the eastern edge of the city), at the southeastern corner of Mt. Tzion (the City of David).


 7:32 Therefore, behold, the days come, says YaHuWaH, that it shall no more be called Topheth, nor The valley of the Son of Hinnom, but The valley of Slaughter: for they shall bury in Topheth, until there be no place to bury.


Slaying: or murder, but the emphasis is on the numbers who will be killed here when Yahuwah brings judgment; LXX and Aramaic, Valley of the Slain. Due to lack of space: Aramaic, until there is no place.


 7:33 The dead bodies of this people shall be food for the birds of the sky, and for the animals of the earth; and none shall frighten them away. 


Compare Rev. 19:17-21. Frighten them away: or startle them. This is reminiscent of Abram driving away the birds that started coming after the carcasses of the animals he had divided in his initial covenant with Yahuwah. (Gen. 15) Birds or fowls are often symbolic of evil ruwachs. They were driven away then, but the covenant-cutting was itself a declaration that if one of the parties to the covenant failed to keep his part, the other party would have a right to do the same to him. Yahuwah had already divided the nation of his descendants in half, but now the unstated, more gruesome consequence of this treason was also to be fulfilled.


7:34 Then shall I cause to cease from the cities of Yahuwdah, and from the streets of Yahrushalom, the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride; for the Land shall become a waste. [Joy: LXX, those who make merry. This is repeated again in 16:9 and 25:10, but compare 33:10-11. The same curse is transferred to Babel in Rev. 18:23.]


8:1 At That Time, says YaHuWaH, they shall bring out the bones of the sovereigns of Yahuwdah, and the bones of his princes, and the bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets [of falsehoods], and the bones of the inhabitants of Yahrushalom, out of their graves;


Prophets: Aramaic adds, of falsehood, to clarify that Yahuwah does not wish to defame His prophets. Yet the bones of the kings would seem to include even David’s. Was even he so disgraced because of the choices made by those who came after him? Their true inner weakness was exposed, for no matter how muscular one looks, his body will collapse under strain if his bones are not strong. (Compare Acts 3:7.) No matter how wealthy and powerful these kings appeared, and how religious the priests and prophets seemed, inwardly they had no foundation whatsoever.


 8:2 and they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon, and all the army of the sky, which they have loved, and which they have served, and after which they have walked, and which they have sought, and which they have worshiped: they shall not be gathered, nor be buried, they shall be for dung on the surface of the earth. 


Compare Yehezqel 6:5. This ultimate act disrespect represented the opposite of being “gathered to one’s fathers”,  for the bones of many generations were traditionally placed together after the bodies had decomposed. They were being separated from their heritage as Ysra'alites. Normally one’s bones last for centuries, if not millennia, after one dies, but “envy is the rottenness of the bones.” (Prov. 14:29) Wanting another’s position for oneself makes the bones decay, ultimately making it as if this person had never existed, removing their memory from the earth. Fertilizer: LXX, as an example.


 8:3 Death shall be chosen rather than life by all the residue that remain of this evil family, that remain in all the places where I have driven them, says YaHuWaH Master of Armies. [Rev.9:6 - 5th Trump]


Death will be chosen: Aram., they will delight in death—as every aspect of Egyptian life emphasized preparation for death. Yahuwah said He set before us the choice of life or death. (Deut. 30:19) Those who did not wish to be subject to His Torah are described as having turned their hearts back to Egypt. (Acts 7:39) But choosing death is not as simple as being suicidal. Choosing self—our own lives—means death, because when we “find our lives”, we lose them. (Mat. 10:39)


 8:4 Moreover you shall tell them, Thus says YaHuWaH: Shall they fall, and not rise up again? Shall one turn away, and not return? 


They: apparently the Babelian army, who may have appeared to be in “remission”. Or, Don’t those who fall get up again? Don’t those who turn away come back? So why…?


8:5 Why then is this people of Yahrushalom slidden back by a perpetual backsliding? They hold fast deceit, they refuse to return.

 8:6 I listened and heard, but they do not speak aright: no man repents him of his wickedness, saying, What have I done? everyone turns to his course, like a horse rushing  into battle.


The first step toward changing is admitting guilt, but they refused to do so. Their heart is not asking where it has fallen short of its potential. They ignore the early warning signs that could spare them much more trouble later. Lifestyles: or, racecourses. Turned back…: LXX, The runner has failed from his course, like a tired horse.


8:7 Yes, the stork in the sky knows her appointed times; and a dove, a swift, and a thrush observe the time of their migration; but My people don’t know the requirements of YaHuWaH. 8:8 How do you say, We are wise, and the Torah of YaHuWaH is with us, When in fact, look-- the lying pen of the scribes have worked falsehood? 8:9 The wise men are disappointed, they are dismayed and taken: behold, they have rejected the Word of YaHuWaH; so what manner of wisdom is in them?  8:10 Therefore I shall give their wives to others, and their fields to those who shall possess them: for everyone from the least even to the greatest is consumed with greed; from the prophet even to the priest every one deals falsely.


An unjust profit is not always about money. It can include thinking we deserve to be held in high esteem by men. The prophets were not content to hear from Yahuwah and speak authoritatively; they want their own authority, like Jezebel. This is why several in Scripture were struck with leprosy. (e.g., 2 Chron. 26:16-21) Even the priests, who had the most respected position in Ysra'al, wanted more. YaHuWSHuWaH said they had received all the reward they were going to get.


 8:11 They have healed the hurt of the daughter of My people slightly, saying, "Wholeness, total well-being,  when there is no soundness in it. 


When people say there is peace in this age when peace has not yet arrived, it should be a red flag warning us not to trust them. (Daniel 8:25) The only way to true peace is through the painful inquiry into “what we have done”. To say we can be at peace just because “Jezus died for us” (so we can never be punished) or even because we are “doing the best we can” to obey is out of season in our day.


8:12 Were they ashamed when they had committed abomination? No, they were not at all ashamed, neither could they blush: therefore they shall fall among those who fall; in the time of their visitation they shall be cast down, says YaHuWaH.

8:13 I shall utterly consume them, says YaHuWaH: there shall be no grapes on the vine, nor figs on the fig tree, and the leaf shall fade; and the things that I have given them shall pass away from them. 


He has found no value in them. (9:9) YaHuWSHuWaH cursed a fig tree for having leaves (as if there would also be fruit) but no figs. (Mark 11:13ff)


8:14 Why do we sit still? Assemble yourselves, and let us enter into the fortified cities, and let us be silent there; for YaHuWaH our Aluahiym has put us to silence, and given us water of hemlock to drink, because we have sinned against YaHuWaH.


Hemlock: or poison, bitterness, gall; Aramaic, the cup of cursing.


 8:15 We looked for peace, but no good came; and for a time of healing, but behold, only violence (Hamas)!


Healing: Aramaic, pardon from debts. This is what all who go on sinning willfully can expect, because they are taught that “Al will pardon any sin”, so they do not truly repent.


 8:16 The snorting of his [Babel's king] horses is heard from Dan: at the sound of the neighing of his strong ones the whole Land trembles; for they are come, and have devoured the Land and all that is in it; the city and those who dwell therein. 8:17 For, behold, I shall send serpents, adders, among you, which shall not be charmed; and they shall bite you, says YaHuWaH. 8:18 Oh that I could comfort myself against sorrow! My heart is faint within me. 

 8:19 Behold, the voice of the cry of the daughter of my people from a land that is very far off: isn’t YaHuWaH in Tsiyown? Isn’t her Sovereign in her? Why have they provoked Me to anger with their engraved images, and with foreign vanities? 8:20 The harvest is past, the summer is ended, and we are not saved. [Sukkot]


This is at Sukkoth, when the grace period of the foregoing days is finally completed and one’s direction for the coming year is sealed. Atonement has not been granted as anticipated. (During the 40 years following YaHuWSHuWaH’s death the red cord was tied around the “scapegoat’s” horn - but it did not turn white as before.) We need to count the cost and request an adequate “budget” for the coming year at this time, so that we will be able to complete what we need to. What we truly seek in the ruwach will be found (Mat. 7:7), so be sure you are seeking the right thing


 8:21 For the hurt of the daughter of my people am I hurt: I mourn; dismay has taken hold on me.


The Aramaic targum has Yahrushalom saying these words. Been darkened: Aram., my [Yahrushalom’s] face has been covered with a coating of blackness like a pot. Perhaps this refers to the burning of the city. But one day she will again speak, expressing amazement at all the children she has regained when they turned back to Yahuwah in their exile. (YashaYahuw 49:20-21) 49:20 The children of your bereavement shall yet say in your ears, The place is too small for me; give place to me that I may dwell. 49:21 Then you will say in your heart, ‘Who has conceived these for me, seeing I have been bereaved of my children, and am solitary, an exile, and wandering back and forth? Who has brought up these? Behold, I was left alone; these, where were these?’”


 8:22 Is there no salve in Gil'ad? is there no healer there? So why then isn’t the health of the daughter of my people improved?


Salve: the Aramaic sees it as symbolic of the teaching of EliYahuw the prophet, who was from Gil’ad. If we had heeded his words, we would have been healed. His words are, “How long will you hobble between two opinions? If YaHuWaH is Aluahiym, serve Him!” (1 Kings 18:21) The ruwach of EliYahuw is returning today to precede the “great and terrible” Day of YaHuWaH, and again it says, “YaHuWaH—HE IS Aluahiym!” Not “the Lord”, “God”, or some other substituted title/name; at best, these obscure the truth, and at worst are idolatry.


9:1 Oh that my head were waters, and my eyes a spring of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people!


Though this is the only heritage YirmeYahuw had ever wished to have, he cannot stand to remain in his home, because lying has come to be so normal that no one can trust anyone anymore:


 9:2 Oh that I had in the wilderness a lodging place of wayfaring men; that I might leave my people, and go from them! For they are all adulterers, an assembly of treacherous men. 9:3 They bend their tongue, as it were their bow, for falsehood; and they are grown strong in the Land, but not for truth: for they proceed from evil to evil, and they don’t know Me, says YaHuWaH.  Take heed everyone of his neighbor, and don’t trust in any brother; for every brother catches by the heal, and every neighbor walks with slanders.

 [Bareshiyth 25:26 After that, his brother came out, and his hand had hold on Esaw’s heel. He was named Ya'aqob. ["He will take by the heel"]  catches: literally, take by the heel (i.e., hold you back; related to Ya'aqob’s name); Aram., every brother surely lurks in wait.


 9:5 They shall deceive everyone his neighbor [for sport], and shall not speak the Truth: they have taught their tongue to speak lies; they weary themselves to commit iniquity. 9:6-7 Your dwelling place is in the midst of deceit; through deceit they refuse to know Me, says YaHuWaH.  


Your dwelling place: Aram., their assembly-houses. LXX: There is usury upon usury, deceit upon deceit.


Therefore thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, Behold, I shall melt them, and try them; for what else can I do, because of the face [sins] of the daughter of My people? 9:8 Their tongue is a deadly arrow; it speaks deceit: one speaks peaceably to his neighbor with his mouth, but in his innermost heart he sets his ambush. 9:9 Shall I not visit them for these things? says YaHuWaH; shall not My being be avenged on such a nation as this? 

9:10 For the mountains shall I take up a weeping and wailing, and for the pastures of the wilderness a lamentation, because they are burned up, so that none passes through; neither can men hear the voice of the livestock; both the birds of the sky and the animals are fled, they are gone. 9:11 I shall make Yahrushalom heaps, a dwelling place of jackals; and I shall make the cities of Yahuwdah a desolation, without inhabitant.

 9:12 Who is the wise man, that may understand this? and who is he to whom the mouth of YaHuWaH has spoken, that he may declare it? Why is the Land perished and burned up like a wilderness, so that none passes through?  9:13 YaHuWaH says, Because they have forsaken My Torah which I set before them, and have not obeyed My Voice, neither walked therein, 9:14 but have walked after the stubbornness of their own heart, and after the Ba'aliym (lords), which their fathers taught them; 9:15 therefore thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, Behold, I shall feed them, even this people, with wormwood [trouble], and give them water of gall [hemlock] to drink.  9:16 I shall scatter them also among the nations, whom neither they nor their fathers have known; and I shall send the sword after them, until I have consumed them. 9:17 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, "Consider, and call for the mourning women, that they may come; and send for the women versed in lamentations that they may come: 9:18 and let them make haste, and take up a wailing for us, that our eyes may run down with tears, and our eyelids gush out with waters. 9:19 For a voice of wailing is heard out of Tsiyown, How are we ruined! We are greatly confounded, because we have forsaken the Land, since our dwelling places have thrown us out."


[YaHuWaH warned that if our ancestors lived like the nations that inhabited Kena'an before them, the very land itself would spit them out (Lev. 18:28; 20:22), and this is what was happening here.]


9:20 Yet hear the Word of YaHuWaH, you women, and let your ear receive the Word of His mouth; and teach your daughters wailing, and everyone her neighbor lamentation. 9:21 For death is come up into our windows, it is entered into our palaces; to cut off the children from outside, and the young men from the streets. 9:22 Speak, Thus says YaHuWaH, The dead bodies of men shall fall as dung on the open field, and as the handful after the harvester; and none shall gather them.

9:23 Thus says YaHuWaH, Don’t let the wise man boast in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man boast in his might, don’t let the rich man boast in his riches; 


Boast: means to rave about something even to the point of appearing foolish. When the lights are really turned on, all will see that living for oneself is the real foolishness, but in the era when such philosophies have precedence in the public eye, walking the most straightforward, simple way will be what is called foolish. And that is what we must accept for His sake. (1 Cor. 1;19-2:16)


9:24-25 but let him who boasts, boast in this, that he has understanding, and knows Me, that I AM YaHuWaH Who exercises loving kindness, justice, and righteousness, in the earth: for in these things I delight, says YaHuWaH. 


YaHuWSHuWaH echoed this concept when He told His disciples not to rejoice because the demons were subject to them, but because their names were inscribed in Heaven. (Luke 10:20) What is called wisdom now is usually just knowing the way the system works and capitalizing on it. But all of this knowledge will be thrown into disarray soon when He shakes all that can be shaken. (Haggai 2:6) If we think we know anything, we have not yet begun to have true knowledge (1 Cor. 8:2), because we know in part (1 Cor. 13:9), i.e., by contrasting one thing with another, and by fragmenting things into manageably-sized increments. But the only true knowledge is to connect directly with the Source in which all of the parts hold together. This consolidates our debts and infinitely simplifies life. (Compare Micha 6:8) Justice: or judgment, right legal ruling. Asking Him, as we do in the shakharit prayers, to “restore our judges as at the earliest times” seems extremely undemocratic, but it is the way of Ysra'al. We must “be transformed by the renewing of our minds” (Rom. 12:2) so our reasons for boasting can be reset.


 Behold, the days come, says YaHuWaH, that I shall punish all those who are circumcised with the uncircumcised: 9:26 Mitsrayim, and Yahuwdah, and Edom, and the children of Ammown, and Mow'ab, and all who are in the farthest corners who dwell in the wilderness; for all the nations are uncircumcised, and all the House of Ysra'al are uncircumcised in heart.


10:1 Hear the Word which YaHuWaH speaks to you, O House of Ysra'al! [for us today! - as Ysra'al was no longer a nation - and had been in exile for over 100 years!] 10:2 Thus says YaHuWaH, “Don’t learn the way of the nations, and don’t be dismayed at the signs of the sky; for the nations are dismayed at them. 


Learn the ways: or, be goaded into, become expert in. There will be many signs in the heavens in the coming years, and they will indeed cause great dismay and huge changes in the topography of the earth, the economy, and the safety of many people. But we also need to remember that these are the things that will lay the physical foundations for the Mashiyach’s Kingdom to come. We must ride their tidal waves as the ark did, and not fear being inundated by them, because Yahuwah is in control. But we should also not utilize other Gentile customs, or operate in their manner (Mat. 10:5):

[Luke 21:11 There shall be great earthquakes, famines, and plagues in various places. There shall be terrors and great signs from heaven [6th seal]. (Debarim 32:22-25)]


 10:3 For the customs of the peoples are vanity; for one cuts a tree out of the forest, the work of the hands of the workman with the axe. 10:4 They deck it with silver and with gold; they fasten it with nails and with hammers, so that it will not wobble. 


Doesn’t this sound just like a Christmas tree? It also refers to idols made from trees:


 10:5 They are like a palm tree, of turned work, and don’t speak: they must be carried, because they can’t go. Don’t be afraid of them; for they can’t do evil, neither is it in them to do good.”

10:6 There is none like You, YaHuWaH; You are great, and Your Name is great in might! 10:7 Who would not fear You, O Sovereign of the nations? For this is Your due, because among all the wise men of the nations, and in all their royal estate, there is none like You!

10:8 But they are together brutish and foolish: the instruction of idols! It is but a stock. 10:9 There is silver beaten into plates, which is brought from Tarshiysh, and gold from Uwphaz, the work of the artificer and of the hands of the goldsmith; blue and purple for their clothing; they are all the work of skillful men.


Blue and purple: the same shades used for many articles in the Tabernacle, for they were trying to take Yahuwah’s place. Tharshish: Aramaic, Africa, but usually thought of as the westernmost extremity of the known world. Ufaz: thought to be another name for Ofir, which means “reducing to ashes”.


 10:10 But YaHuWaH is the true Aluahiym; He is the living Aluahiym, and an everlasting Sovereign: at His wrath the earth trembles, and the nations are not able to abide His indignation. 10:11 You shall say this to them: The elah [mighty one] that have not made the heavens and the earth, these shall perish from the earth, and from under the heavens. 


[This verse (and only this) is written in Aramaic within the Hebrew text. The targum explains that it is a copy of the letter YirmeYahuw sent to the elders of the Exile who were in Babel.]


10:12 He has made the earth by His Power, He has established the world by His Wisdom (chokmah), and by His Understanding (biynah) has He stretched out the heavens: [still stretching-out today!] 10:13 when He utters His Voice, there is a tumult of waters in the heavens, and He causes the vapors to ascend from the ends of the earth; He produces lightnings to send the rain, and brings forth the wind out of His treasuries.

 [Produces the lightning to send rain: scientifically, there is a connection. If a cloud is not sufficiently saturated to begin to form rain droplets on its own, the charge of electricity from lightning can break up the integrity of the molecular units of water vapor that are bound together and cause them to condense into liquid form.]


10:14 Every man is become brutish and is without knowledge; every goldsmith is disappointed by his engraved image; for his molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them. 10:15 They are vanity, a work of delusion: in the time of their visitation they shall perish. 10:16 The Portion of Ya'aqob is not like these; for He is the Maker of all; and Ysra'al is the tribe of His inheritance -  YaHuWaH Master of Armies is His Name. 

10:17 Gather up your wares out of the Land, you who abide in the siege. 10:18 For thus says YaHuWaH, Behold, I shall sling out the inhabitants of the Land at this time, and shall distress them, so that they may find out.


Find out: Ysra'al still does not believe Yahuwah is so unique. Though He had given us every head start so we could avoid the trial and error that the Gentiles are left with, as He had with Adam and Chuwah, still Ysra'al, of all peoples, was turning to chasing after wind! (v. 8) So He has to cast them out among the nations to show how bad it really is out there. Then, like the Prodigal Son, perhaps they will long for home.


 10:19 "Woe is me because of my hurt! My wound is grievous:" but I said, "Truly this is just a disease, and I must bear it. 10:20 My tent is destroyed, and all my cords are broken: my children are gone forth from me, and they are no more: there is none to spread my tent any more, and to set up my curtains.


Tent… curtains: This is an allusion to the Tabernacle. They are not here: LXX, and my cattle are no more.


 10:21 For the shepherds are become brutish, and have not inquired of YaHuWaH: therefore they have not prospered, and all their flocks are scattered. [All of Yehzeqel 34] 10:22 The voice of news, behold, it comes, and a great commotion out of the north country, to make the cities of Yahuwdah a desolation, a dwelling place of jackals." [cf. Dan. 11:44]

 10:23 O YaHuWaH, I know that the way of man is not in himself: it is not in man who walks to direct his own steps. 


A human being’s course is not in himself: or, the way of Adam is not in him. Originally, Adam could go directly to Yahuwah and ask Him to direct his steps. He did not have to figure it out for himself. All He had to do was ask Abba. Yahuwah had no complaint about this dependency. But the Rival, bitter from being punished, convinced Adam and Chuwah that by experiencing evil within themselves, they could have within themselves what it takes to know right from wrong without having to go to Yahuwah for answers. So when Yahuwah began to remedy the curse, He created a nation that was NOT to be independent—not to have enough horses or chariots to win their battles by natural means, not to know how many fighting men they had, but trust Yahuwah to instill in each the desire to stand up for the truth and fill in where they were still lacking. YaHuWSHuWaH, who bore the curse away, said even He did not have in himself what it would take, but judged as He heard from His Father and acted only as He saw the Father acting. (Yahuwchanan 5:19, 30) Sha'ul, who carried the message of the remedy to exiled Ysra'al, said he had determined to have none of the world’s wisdom—the security of knowledge about so many things—and know only Mashiyach and His remedy. That was what the foolishness of his preaching and the bizarre pictures many of the prophets acted out were meant to make us see. Autonomy is Yahuwah’s enemy. Disney’s advice to “follow your heart” is “the way that seems right to a man” but whose end is death. (Prov. 16:25) The heart is deceitful. (17:9) And YirmeYahuw got the point:


10:24 O YaHuWaH, correct me, but in measure: not in Your anger, lest You bring me to nothing.


In the right measure: Aramaic, with clement judgment. (The word does mean both judgment and justice, i.e., limited to what we deserve, not done according to whim, yet establishing what is in line with the Torah and unbendingly carried out.) Otherwise we will be decimated; there will not be much left. YirmeYahuw realizes he is so deformed that he needs to be trained back into the right shape a little at a time, not all at once, or he will break. Yahuwah remembers that we are weak (Psalm 103), so He exercises us. (Heb. 12:11) We can let His correction go either way. If we are willing to discipline ourselves, He will not meet us in a punishing mode (1 Cor. 11:31), but will be patient and train us step by step to simply learn how to walk before expecting us to go anywhere, and if we submit our way to Him and acknowledge Him in all our ways, He will direct our steps. (Psalm 37:5; Prov. 3:5-6)


 10:25 Pour out Your wrath on the heathen that don’t know You, and on the families that don’t call on Your Name: for they have devoured Ya'aqob, yes, they have devoured him and consumed him, and have laid waste his habitation.


Those who do evil, hate the light and run from it, not even wanting to acknowledge that they have a need, let alone that it can be remedied. (Yahuwchanan 3:19) They will keep squirming in the other direction when He wants to reset their fracture, so it will only get worse. Wrath (hot displeasure) is the built-in result when there is a breach in the wall and they will not let Him repair it; there are always enemies ready to rush in and plunder. But these “nations and clans (families)” include those within Ysra'al who would not repent, for they are the ones who have really done the most to destroy Ysra'al.



11:1 The Word that came to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH, saying, 11:2 "Hear the Words of this Covenant, and speak to the men of Yahuwdah, and to the inhabitants of Yahrushalom;  11:3 and say to them, Thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Cursed is the man who doesn’t hear the Words of this Covenant, 11:4 which I commanded your fathers in the day that I brought them forth out of the land of Mitsrayim, out of the iron furnace, saying, Obey My Voice, and do them, according to all which I command you: so you shall be My people, and I shall be your Aluahiym;


In other words, “Do everything I say, and I will remain with you.” Even David was afraid that, after all the righteousnesses he had done, Yahuwah might still take away His ruwach of set-apartness from him on account of one wrong he had done. (Ps. 51)


11:5 that I may establish the oath which I swore to your fathers, to give them a land flowing with milk and honey, as at this day." Then I answered, and said, Amein, YaHuWaH! 11:6 But YaHuWaH said to me, "Proclaim all these Words in the cities of Yahuwdah, and in the streets of Yahrushalom, saying, Hear the Words of this Covenant, and do them. 11:7 For I earnestly protested to your fathers in the day that I brought them up out of the land of Mitsrayim, even to this day, rising early and protesting, saying, Obey My Voice. 11:8 Yet they didn’t obey, nor turn their ear, but walked everyone in the stubbornness of their evil heart: therefore I brought on them all the Words of this Covenant, which I commanded them to do, but they didn’t do them."11:9 So YaHuWaH said to me, A conspiracy is found among the man of Yahuwdah, and among the inhabitants of Yahrushalom. 


Man: singular. Now Yahuwdah is united, acting as one man, but for the other side. The conspiracy is complete, so how can He withhold judgment any longer?


 11:10 They are turned back to the iniquities of their forefathers, who refused to hear My Words; and they are gone after other mighty ones to serve them: the House of Ysra'al and the House of Yahuwdah have broken My Covenant which I made with their fathers.  11:11 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH, Here I am bringing evil on them, which they shall not be able to escape; and they shall cry to Me, but I shall not listen to them. 11:12 Then shall the cities of Yahuwdah and the inhabitants of Yahrushalom go and cry to the mighty ones to which they offer incense (prayers): but they shall not save them at all in the time of their trouble. 11:13 For according to the number of your cities are your mighty ones, Yahuwdah; and according to the number of the streets of Yahrushalom have you set up altars [churches] to the shameful thing, even altars to burn incense to Ba'al. (or pray to "the lord" - incense = prayers) 11:14 And you must not go behind this people to intervene for them, neither lift up cry nor prayer for them; because there is nothing in Me that will listen in the time that they cry to Me because of their trouble.


Go behind this people: i.e., clean up after them, to make it look like what they had done was not so bad, no matter how much you love them.


 11:15 What has My beloved to do in My House, seeing she has worked lewdness with many, and the set-apart flesh is passed from you? When you do evil, then you rejoice. 11:16 YaHuWaH called you, "A Green Olive Tree, Beautiful with Goodly Fruit": with the noise of a great tumult He has kindled fire on it, and its branches are broken. 


Well-shaped fruit: LXX, of goodly shade in appearance. Roaring: LXX, being lopped (off). Branches are broken: Perhaps this forms part of the background for Romans 11:17-19. Broken in pieces: LXX, worthless. [Rom. 11:17-19, Yahuwchanan 15:5]


11:17 For YaHuWaH Master of Armies, Who planted you, has pronounced evil against you, because of the rolling together of the House of Ysra'al and of the House of Yahuwdah, which they have worked for themselves in provoking Me to anger by offering incense to Ba'al [praying to the Lord]. 


Rolling together: i.e., into one bundle of sticks useful for nothing but to be burned. YaHuWSHuWaH says Yahuwah will have the inedible “crop” gathered for destruction before He harvests the beneficial crop. (Mat. 13:30)


11:18 YaHuWaH gave me knowledge of it, and I knew it: then You showed me their doings. 11:19 But I was like a gentle lamb that is led to the slaughter; and I didn’t know that they had devised devices against me, saying, "Let us destroy the tree with its fruit, and let us cut him off from the land of the living, that his name may be no more remembered."[he was a type of YaHuWSHuWaH] 11:20 But, YaHuWaH Master of Armies, Who judges righteously, Who tests the kidneys and the heart - I shall see Your vengeance on them; for to You have I revealed my cause.


Tests the kidneys and the heart: He scrutinizes both the emotions and affections (embodied in the kidneys, the seat of our “gut feelings” and the part of us that depicts discernment, flushing out what is useless) and the inclination of our will or determination (embodied as the heart).


 11:21 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH concerning the men of Anathowth, who seek your life, saying, "Do not prophesy in the Name of YaHuWaH, and you will not die by our hand";


Men of Anathoth: priests (v. 1). Today it is pastors, “priests”, and rabbis who tell us not to use Yahuwah’s name. In Stefanos’ case, the extremely religious men even blocked their ears from hearing it mentioned. (Acts 7:57) Life: literally, soul. Anathoth means “answers to prayer”. But to whom were they really praying?


 11:22 therefore thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, Behold, I shall punish them: the young men shall die by the sword; their sons and their daughters shall die by famine;  11:23 and there shall be no remnant to them: for I shall bring evil on the men of Anathowth, even the year of their calling to account.


12:1 You are righteous, O YaHuWaH, when I plead with You; yet still, let me discuss procedures of justice with You: why does the way of the wicked prosper? Why are all they at ease who deal very treacherously?


Flourishing: or, at ease; Aramaic, unconcerned. The wicked: in this case, YirmeYahuw’s audience. It seems unjust that Yahuwah has not punished them already. He does not understand, but in reality they are, as YaHuWSHuWaH said, receiving their reward now, and will have none left later.


12:2 You have planted them, yes, they have taken root; they grow, yes, they bring forth fruit: You are near in their mouth, and far away from their affections. 


They are always talking about Yahuwah, but their minds are on themselves.


12:3 But You, O YaHuWaH, know me; you see me, and try my heart toward You: pull them out like sheep for the slaughter, and prepare them for the day of slaughter. 12:4 How long shall the Land mourn, and the glistening plants of the whole field wither [everyone YaHuWaH has planted in Ysra'al], because of the wickedness of those who dwell in it? The animals are consumed, and the birds; because they said, "He does not see what we are after."

12:5 If you have run with the foot soldiers, and they have wearied you, then how can you contend with horses? And if in a land of peace you feel safe, then how do you manage when the Yarden rises up? 


I.e., “You haven’t seen anything yet!” Yahuwah understands his concerns, but says, in essence, “They are not worth My time to punish; they will receive theirs when the rest do. This is not your battle; I have bigger fish for you to fry—your own family, who are priests, no less! I’ll take care of them; you do what I’ve given you.” The Aramaic targum identifies the foot-soldier as Nebukhadnetzar, to whom Yahuwah was kind, astonishing YirmeYahuw, but then asks how much more He can then be expected to reward his righteous ancestors.


12:6 For even your brothers, and the house of your father, even they have dealt treacherously with you; even they have summoned a filling-up to come after you. Do not believe them, though they speak well of you. 


Your brothers: fellow Ysra'alites and even priests (whom YirmeYahuw was begging Yahuwah to have mercy on) brought trouble on the rest of their countrymen by their sins. A filling-up: perhaps like the sin of the Amorites, which had not yet been completed in Abraham’s day, so his descendants had to wait to possess the whole Land. YaHuWSHuWaH also told the religious leaders of Yahuwdah to fill up the determined measure of the sins of their ancestors so Yahuwah could go ahead and judge them. (Mat. 23:32ff; compare 1 Thess. 2:16.)


12:7 I have forsaken My House, I have cast off My heritage; I have given the dearly beloved of My being into the hand of her enemies. 12:8 My heritage is become to Me as a lion in the forest: she has uttered her voice against Me; therefore I have hated her. 12:9 My heritage has become to Me as a speckled bird of prey. The birds of prey are against her all around? Go, assemble all the animals of the field, bring them to devour.


Speckled bird of prey: the odd one in the group, which is persecuted by the others. Ysra'al can never fit in with the nations, and when it tries, they only turn on her. LXX, a hyena’s cave; Aramaic, like a fowl that hovers. Of the field: that is, wild—a picture of being “of the world”. (Mat. 13:38)


12:10 Many shepherds (pastors) have destroyed My vineyard, they have trodden My portion under foot, they have made My pleasant portion a desolate wilderness. [Yez. 34] 12:11 They have made it a desolation; it mourns to Me, being desolate; the whole Land is made desolate, because no man lays it to heart. 12:12 Destroyers are come on all the bare heights in the wilderness; for the sword of YaHuWaH devours from the one end of the Land even to the other end of the Land: no flesh has peace.  12:13-14 They have sown wheat, and have reaped thorns; they have exhausted themselves - and profit nothing: and you shall be ashamed of your fruits, because of the fierce anger of YaHuWaH. Thus says YaHuWaH against all the neighboring shepherds, who touch the inheritance which I have caused My people Ysra'al to inherit: behold, I shall remove them up from off their land, and shall pluck up the House of Yahuwdah from among them. 12:15 It shall happen, after that I have pulled them up, I shall come back and have compassion on them; and I shall bring them again, every man to his heritage, and every man to his land.


Pulled them up: Aramaic, exiled them. I will come back: Aramaic, I will return in My Memra (Living Word); i.e., through YaHuWSHuWaH. (2 Cor. 5:19)


12:16 It shall happen, if they [other nations] shall diligently learn the ways of My people, to swear by My Name,  As YaHuWaH lives; even as they taught My people to swear by Ba'al (the lord); then shall they be built up in the midst of My people.  12:17 But if they shall not hear, then shall I pluck up that nation, plucking up and destroying it, says YaHuWaH.


This correlates with what happens to the nations during Mashiyach’s Kingdom who do not attend the feast of Sukkoth in Yahrushalom. (Zech. 14:18)



13:1 Thus says YaHuWaH to me, Go, and buy yourself a linen waistband, and put it over your hips, and don’t put it in water.


Buy: or simply obtain, procure, or get. Linen: anciently, made from flax, not cotton. The root word means “disintegrate”, because the stalks were put into troughs until they degenerated enough to loosen the hull from the long, fine fiber inside. Modern methods have still not equaled the length of fibers they were able to extract in ancient Egypt. Waistband: or sash, which was tied around the waist and loins in such a way as to make a robe able to function like trousers, letting men move freely while they worked. Ephesians 6:14 reveals that this represents truth. [ Stand your ground, putting on the sturdy belt of truth and the body armor of Yahuwah's righteousness.]


 13:2 So I bought the waistband according to the Word of YaHuWaH, and put it over my hips. 13:3 The Word of YaHuWaH came to me the second time, saying, 13:4 Take the waistband that you have bought, which is on your hips, and arise, go to the Perath, and hide it there in a hole in the rock. 13:5 So I went, and hid it by the Perath, as YaHuWaH commanded me. 13:6 It happened after many days, that YaHuWaH said to me, Arise, go to the Perath, and take the waistband from there, which I commanded you to hide there. 13:7 Then I went to the Perath, and dug, and took the waistband from the place where I had hid it; and behold, the belt was rotten, it was profitable for nothing. 


It was rotten because it had not been allowed to touch water, the picture of Yahuwah’s word (Eph. 5:26). YaHuWSHuWaH taught that defilement comes from within (Mat. 15:11-20), and here we see that, though unaffected by other forces, this product of “disintegration” (note on v. 1) decayed on its own. It had also been seeking protection in Babel. Babel allowed Ysra'alite religion to flourish, but still they were influenced by its ways. When the truth was hidden near the teachings of Babel, it was ruined. One of Babel’s customs was to never speak the name of their deity lest it pay them too much attention, and when Yahuwdah returned from captivity there, it had adopted this custom, rendering many blessings ineffective. (Contrast 12:16.)


13:8 Then the Word of YaHuWaH came to me, saying, 13:9 Thus says YaHuWaH, After this manner shall I mar the pride of Yahuwdah, and the great pride of Yahrushalom.


Compare Hoshea’s words: “Ysra'al’s pride is a witness in his face, so Ysra'al (that is, Efrayim) will be tripped up by their crookedness; Yahuwdah has also stumbled along with them.” (5:5; cf. ObadYahuw 3.)


 13:10 This evil people, who refuse to hear My Words, who walk in the stubbornness of their heart, and are gone after other mighty ones to serve them, and to worship them, shall even be as this belt, which is profitable for nothing. 13:11 For as a waistband cleaves to the hips of a man, so have I caused to cleave to Me the whole House of Ysra'al and the whole House of Yahuwdah, says YaHuWaH; that they may be to Me for a people, and for renown, and for a praise, and for an adorning: but they would not hear. 


Stay close: cling devotedly or intensely, like a child that does not want his parent to leave him. Renown and praise and splendor: Ysra'al was designed for these things, but thought other pursuits were more valuable. Someone had radically “switched the price tags”! If they served Mammon, they could no longer be close to Him. (Mat. 6:24) When Ysra'al does not fulfill its purpose as given by Yahuwah, it is indeed useless, because it has been separated from every other purpose and not trained for any other livelihood.


13:12 Therefore you shall speak to them this word: Thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, "Every wineskin shall be filled with wine!" and they shall tell you, Do we not certainly know that every wineskin shall be filled with wine?" 


Bottle: or wineskin. They thought He was telling them nothing new, but He was hinting that an overfilled bottle, like a water balloon, would be more prone to burst when dashed against another. (v. 13-14) One too full of strong drink will not have the judgment to fight back coherently when attacked.


13:13 Then you shall tell them, Thus says YaHuWaH, "Here I am filling all the inhabitants of this Land, even the sovereigns who sit on Dawiyd’s throne, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the inhabitants of Yahrushalom, with drunkenness. 13:14 I shall dash them one against another, even the fathers and the sons together, says YaHuWaH: I shall not pity, nor spare, nor have compassion, that I should not destroy them."


Dash to pieces: i.e., like bottles. The word can also mean scatter, which is what Yahuwah did to all of Ysra'al.


13:15 Hear, and give ear; don’t be proud; for YaHuWaH has spoken. 13:16 Give esteem to YaHuWaH your Aluahiym, before He causes darkness, and before your feet stumble on the dark mountains, and, while you look for light, He turns it into the shadow of death, and makes it gross darkness. 13:17 But if you shall not hear it, my being shall weep in secret for your pride; and my eye shall weep sore, and run down with tears, because YaHuWaH’s flock is taken captive. 13:18 Say to the sovereign and to the queen mother, Humble yourselves, sit down; for your headdresses have come down, even the crown of your splendor. 13:19 The cities of the South are shut up, and there is none to open them: Yahuwdah is carried away captive, all of it. (The disclosure of the Retribution (Ha-ğlâ´th shilluwmíym:) 13:20 Lift up your eyes, and see those who come from the hidden place of the north: where is the flock that was given you, the sheep of your boasting? 13:21 What shall you say, when He shall set over you as head those whom you have yourself taught to be friends to you? Shall not sorrows take hold of you, as of a woman in travail? 


Captains: from a word for “teach”. Goaded them into being over you: Ysra'al lured Babel into ruling over it when King Hizqiyahu opened doors and gave it information about Ysra'al that he should never have made known, tempting them to be greedy for what belonged to Yahuwah. (2 Kings 20:12-17; 1 Chron. 32:31) His great-great grandson Yehoyaqim let Yahuwdah become a vassal of Babel as soon as it became a great power, and when he rebelled, Yahuwdah became an occupied nation. (2 Kings 24) In his son Yehoyachin’s day, Babel besieged Yahrushalom and took away all the holy implements of the Temple as well as the royal treasures amassed since Shlomo’s day. Later Yahuwdah also invited the Greeks and Romans to rule over them in similar fashion by first becoming their allies in seemingly innocent pursuits.


13:22 If you say in your heart, Why are these things happened to me? For the greatness of your iniquity are your skirts torn off and your heels made bare!


Happened: the emphasis in this Hebrew word is indeed on their thinking that this is merely a chance encounter with fate. Removed: also the word for being exiled. Heels: removing our covering of obedience exposes us to Amaleq, who attacked Ysra'al’s rear guard, and YaHuWSHuWaH (part of Yahuwdah) having to have His heel bruised due to our sin. (Gen. 3:15; YashaYahuw 53:5)


13:23 Can the Kuwshiy change his skin, or the leopard his spots? Then may you also do good, who are accustomed to do evil! 


Kushite: someone with black skin. Accustomed: taught by practice; they have gone too far and will not be granted repentance, but have been turned over to their own delusion. We often take this merciful gift for granted, but in truth it is not guaranteed.


13:24 Therefore shall I scatter them, as the stubble that passes away, by the wind of the wilderness. 13:25 This is your lot, the portion measured to you from Me, says YaHuWaH; because you have forgotten Me, and trusted in the Lie. 13:26 Therefore I shall cause your skirts to be uncovered and lifted over your face, and your dishonorable parts may be looked on. 13:27 I have seen your abominations, even your adulteries, and your neighing, the lewdness of your prostitution, on the hills in the field. Woe to you, Yahrushalom! You are unwilling to be cleansed; how long will it be till you repent?


14:1 The Word of YaHuWaH that came to YirmeYahuw concerning the droughts.


Droughts: an intensive form of the word for withholding, restraining, or making inaccessible. So this was something deliberate on Yahuwah’s part.


 14:2 Yahuwdah mourns, and its gates  [government] languish, they sit in black on the ground; and the cry of Yahrushalom is gone up.


“Gates” is an idiom for the government of a city, since the gates are where the elders sat to make decisions, including that of who could enter the city. Darkened: probably in mourning, but this may refer to the gates having been burned “to the ground”. LXX, her gates are emptied. Tzion mourns simply because her gates are desolate since no one is coming in for Yahuwah’s feasts. (Lam. 1:4) Indeed, in a drought, many aspects of the feasts, like the rich fruit and branches used at Sukkoth, would be unavailable.


14:3 Their nobles send their little ones to the waters: they come to the cisterns, and find no water; they return with their vessels empty; they are disappointed and confounded, and cover their heads. 


Nobles: those used to luxury, not such hardship. Youngest: or little ones; Aramaic, deputies. Cisterns: or pits that had been dug. Found no water: a picture of their ruwachual condition, from which Yahuwah’s word was lacking. Were humiliated: or, blushed. Children would have more stamina to keep searching, but, still failing in their mission, would indeed be embarrassed to return home.


14:4 Because of the ground which is cracked, because no rain has been in the Land, the plowmen are disappointed, they cover their heads. 14:5 Yes, the hind also in the field calves, and forsakes her young, because there is no grass. 14:6 The wild donkeys stand on the bare heights, they pant for air like jackals; their eyes fail, because there is no herbage.

 14:7 Though our iniquities testify against us, work for Your Name’s Sake, O YaHuWaH; for our backslidings are many; we have sinned against You. 14:8 O Purification Pool [Expectation] of Ysra'al, its Savior/Deliverer in the time of trouble, why should You be as a foreigner in the Land, and as a wayfaring man who turns aside to stay for a night? 


Purification pool: Heb., miqveh, used for ritual bathing, whereupon the one who descends under its waters receives the status of “clean”.


14:9 Why should You be as one who is stunned, as a mighty man who can’t deliver? Yet You, O YaHuWaH, are in our midst, and Your Name has been called upon us; do not leave us! 14:10 Thus says YaHuWaH to this people, Even so have they loved to wander; they have not refrained their feet: therefore YaHuWaH does not accept them;  He will now bring their guilt to remembrance, and call them to account for their wanderings from the Way.


Loved to wander: or waver. Like those EliYahuw addressed (1 Kings 18:21), they could not choose between two opinions and stick faithfully to one or the other. They move back and forth as is convenient to them, especially if they are trying not to offend anyone. But this in itself offends Yahuwah, and proves they are fearing someone other than Himself. This is the main reason they are being punished, and the best thing for them is to be destroyed so that a remnant may actually recognize their guilt and return to Him. Therefore it will not help for YirmeYahuw to pray that they be spared:


14:11 YaHuWaH said to me, Don’t pray for this people for their good. 14:12 When they fast, I shall not hear their cry; and when they offer burnt offering and meal offering, I shall not accept them; but I shall consume them by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence.  14:13 Then said I, Ah, Master YaHuWaH! Behold, the prophets tell them, "You shall not see the sword, neither shall you have famine; but I shall give you assured peace in this place." 14:14 Then YaHuWaH said to me, The prophets prophesy lies in My Name; I didn’t send them, neither have I commanded them. I never even spoke to them! They prophesy to you a lying vision, and divination, and a thing of nothing, and the deceit of their own heart.


Deceitfulness: from a word meaning to throw off track, i.e., mislead. They themselves were misled, “the blind leading the blind”.


14:15 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH concerning the prophets who prophesy in My Name, and I didn’t send them, yet they say, sword and famine shall not be in this Land: By sword and famine shall those prophets be consumed.


They had chosen to be prophets because it could bring them personal gain. No sword or famine: the teaching that believers will simply be “raptured” and escape both tribulation and death indeed gets many “warm bodies” into church doors, because it is the kind of message they want to hear.


 14:16 The people to whom they prophesy shall be cast out in the streets of Yahrushalom because of the famine and the sword; and they shall have none to bury them—them, their wives, nor their sons, nor their daughters: for I shall pour their wickedness on them.

14:17 You shall say this word to them, "Let your eyes run down with tears night and day, and let them not cease; for the virgin daughter of my people is broken with a great breach, with a very grievous wound." 14:18 If I go forth into the field, then, behold, the slain with the sword! and if I enter into the city, then, behold, those who are sick with famine! For both the prophet and the priest go about in the Land, and have no knowledge. 14:19 Have You utterly rejected Yahuwdah? Has Your being loathed Tsiyown? Why have You struck us, and there is no healing for us? We looked for peace, but no good came; and for a time of healing, and behold, dismay!  14:20 We acknowledge, YaHuWaH, our wickedness, and the iniquity of our fathers; for we have sinned against You. 


Just as YirmeYahuw had to weep for those who would not weep, we have to repent for those who cannot repent, since they have already died.


14:21 Do not abhor us, for Your Name’s sake; do not disgrace the throne of Your Qabod: remember, don’t break Your covenant with us. 14:22 Are there any among the worthless vapors of the nations that can cause rain? or can the sky give showers? Aren’t YOU HE, YaHuWaH our Aluahiym? Therefore we shall wait for You; for You have made all these things.


Useless vapors: often a term for idols, and understood that way by the translators of the Septuagint (LXX). But notice its significance as regarding clouds that cannot bring rain. Verses 19 through 22 seem to be Yahuwah’s mockery of what Yahuwdah, trying to escape the punishment they now realize they deserve, is saying to Him. But they have gone too far, and He has already said He does not want to hear any more from them.



15:1 Then said YaHuWaH to me: Though Moshah and Shemu'el stood before Me pleading, yet My mind would not be toward this people: cast them out of My sight, and let them leave.


Moshah and Shmu’el were known for prevailing with Him in intercession (e.g., Psalm 106:23), but even Shmu’el was told to stop praying for King Sha’ul. Let them leave: i.e., do not stop them if they want to go. Alt., let them go: release them from your mind as well; if even these men who completely laid their lives down for Ysra'al could not persuade Me to relent, how could you? You are only a beginner!


   15:2 It shall happen, if they should say to you, Where shall we go forth? Then you shall tell them, Thus says YaHuWaH: Such as are for death, to death; and such as are for the sword, to the sword; and such as are for the famine, to the famine; and such as are for captivity, to captivity. 15:3 I shall appoint over them four kinds, says YaHuWaH: the sword to kill, and the dogs to tear, and the birds of the sky, and the animals of the earth, to devour and to destroy.  15:4 I shall cause them to be tossed back and forth among all the kingdoms of the earth, because of Menashsheh, the son of ChizqiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah, because of what he did in Yahrushalom.


[Menashsheh filled Yahrushalom with innocent blood, rebuilt the idolatrous worship centers his father had broken down, dealt with mediums, and slaughterd infants in the fire. He himself repented, but his influence continued to pull Ysra'al downhill.]


 15:5 For who shall have pity on you, Yahrushalom? or who shall bemoan you? or who shall turn aside to ask of your welfare? 15:6 You have rejected Me, says YaHuWaH, you continue walking backwards: so I will stretch out My Hand against you, I will destroy you; I am tired of showing compassion. 15:7 I shall sift (winnow) them with a pitchfork at the gates of the Land; I shall bereave,  I shall exterminate (those of) My people who have not changed from their ways. 15:8 Their widows are piling up to me higher than the sand of the seas; I will bring upon them, against the mother of the youths, one destroying at midday: I will suddenly apportion by lot to them terror and sudden ruin.


Piling up: the connotation is “like bones”. (Compare Yehezqel 37.) Higher than the sand: their sins supersede the fact that they are children of Abraham. Instead of giving them so many descendants, he will give them many childless widows.


 15:9 She who has borne seven languishes; she has given up on her life; her sun is gone down while it was yet day; she has been disappointed and confounded: and the residue of them shall I deliver to the sword before their enemies, says YaHuWaH. 

15:10 Woe is me, my mother, that you have borne me a judge and a rebuker to the whole earth! I am neither a debtor, nor a creditor; yet all of them curse me. 15:11 YaHuWaH said, "Surely I shall not leave you at ease, but will cause an enemy from the north to  encounter you in the time of tribulation and in the time of evil;  15:12 Can one break iron, even iron from the north, and brass?"15:13 Your riches, your treasures, and all your borders shall I give for a spoil because of all your sins.  15:14 I shall make them to pass with your enemies into a land which you don’t know; for a fire is kindled in My anger, which shall burn on you.


 15:15  O YaHuWaH, You know; remember me, and visit me, and avenge me of my persecutors; don’t take me away in your long-suffering: know that for your sake I have endured taunting. 15:16 Your Words were found, and I ate them; and Your Words were to me a joy and the rejoicing of my heart: for I am called by Your Name, YaHuWaH, Aluahiym Master of Armies. (Yirme Yahuw)

15:17 I have not sat in the company of the mockers, nor do I exult. I sat alone in the presence of Your Hand; for You have filled me with displeasure. 15:18 Why is my pain perpetual, and my wound incurable, which refuses to be healed? Shall You indeed be to me as a failing stream of waters like disappointing waters that cannot be trusted?

 15:19 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH, If you turn back, then shall I bring you back, that you may stand before Me; and if you take forth the precious from the vile, you shall be as My mouth: they shall return to you, but you shall not return to them. 


If you turn back: We must take the first step to show our willingness. Remain in front of My face: or, stand/endure before me. But the “you” here is singular, so He is addressing YirmeYahuw, not all of Ysra'al. He himself needed to repent for the complaint in the last verse, which made him as guilty in Yahuwah’s eyes as the rest, though he was offered an open door to repent, unlike them. Valuable: precious, costly, rare, prized, weighty. They may turn back: or, Let them turn back. YirmeYahuw himself is to be an example of this removing what is valuable from what is vile (or worthless, or what is being shaken), which is really the definition of set-apartness. When someone refuses to allow himself to be kodesh, we must leave them behind, or we will lose our set-apartness in the process. However, if they truly repent, we must be ready to welcome them back. But they must come on the terms of the higher standard; we cannot lower the standard in order to include them. We could also apply this to the corporate level; if a body such as the church has allowed itself to be defiled, how could we stay within it, once a higher step has become available to us?


15:20 I shall make you to this people a fortified bronze wall; and they shall fight against you, but they shall not prevail against you; for I AM with you to save you and to deliver you, says YaHuWaH. I shall deliver you out of the hand of the wicked, and I shall redeem you out of the hand of the terrible.


16:1 The Word of YaHuWaH came also to me, saying, 16:2 You shall not take a wife, neither shall you have sons or daughters, in this place. 16:3 For thus says YaHuWaH concerning the sons and concerning the daughters who are born in this place, and concerning their mothers who bore them, and concerning their fathers who became the father of them in this Land: 16:4 They shall die grievous deaths: they shall not be lamented, neither shall they be buried; they shall be as dung on the surface of the ground; and they shall be consumed by the sword, and by famine; and their dead bodies shall be food for the birds of the sky, and for the animals of the earth.


Not buried: This would grate on the sensitivities of Hebrews who are used to burying as soon as possible. Yahuwah is saying that things have become so bad that His followers should not try to salvage the community He had created, but let its fermentation have the fullest effect so that later generations could find usefulness in it and bear fruit thereby. As He did so once to Yahuwdah, He is doing so now with the Church, which was a framework He had worked within for a time, but has now become so paganized, compromised, and corrupt that the best thing to do with it is let it rot and start over—yet He is starting over not with something never seen before, but by recreating the community that preceded both Yahuwdah and the Church: a united Ysra'al.


 16:5 For thus says YaHuWaH, Don’t enter into the house of mourning, neither go to lament, neither bemoan them; for I have taken away My shalom from this people, says YaHuWaH, even loving kindness and tender mercies.


YaHuWSHuWaH likewise told those He sent to withdraw their peace from a house where they were staying which proved unworthy. (Mat. 10:13) Mercy: Aramaic, my loyalty.


16:6 Both great and small shall die in this Land; they shall not be buried, neither shall men lament for them, nor cut themselves, nor make themselves bald for them; 


Cutting oneself and shaving oneself bald on behalf of the dead are forbidden by Torah anyway. (Deut. 14:1) But apparently they were practicing it. Important and insignificant: Aramaic, the big and the tender. No one will mourn: so many will die that there will not be enough mourners left for all of them.


16:7 neither shall men break bread for them in mourning, to comfort them for the dead; neither shall men give them the cup of consolation to drink for their father or for their mother. 16:8 You shall not go into the house of feasting to sit with them, to eat and to drink. 


Compare Eccles. 7:2. It is better to go to the house of mourning than to go to the house of feasting: for that is the end of all men, and the living should take this to heart. 


16:9 For thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Behold, I shall cause to cease out of this place, before your eyes and in your days, the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride. [Rev. 18]


Our presence even at such seemingly-harmless events is our endorsement. His absence was a sign that We partake of those with whom we partake of food. Eating together, scripturally, is a sign of unity with another person, which is why Yahuwah commands us to eat together at the Temple on certain occasions. (e.g., Lev. 7:15) The Essenes were so scandalized by the corruption in the priesthood that they stopped frequenting the Temple altogether, though they knew it was the right place. Even our parents’ influence (represented by their food) can affect us adversely if set-apartness is our goal; even things in the church that feed those who are starving may not be acceptable to the mature. Voice of gladness…: This is a refrain repeated often throughout YirmeYahuw. Prophets would sing out their prophecies with their own distinctive styles.


 16:10 It shall happen, when you shall show this people all these words, and they shall tell you, Why has YaHuWaH pronounced all this great evil against us? or what is our iniquity? or what is our sin that we have committed against YaHuWaH our Aluahiym?


Like Malakhi’s audience, they do not even know enough of Torah to know what they are doing wrong. (Mal. 1:6-7; 2:17; 3:8)


16:11 Then you shall tell them, Because your fathers have forsaken Me, says YaHuWaH, and have walked after other mighty ones, and have served them, and have worshiped them, and have forsaken Me, and have not kept My Torah; 16:12 and you have done more evil than your fathers; for, behold, you walk every one after the stubbornness of his own evil heart, so that you don’t listen to Me:


We are safer at a distance from Yahuwah than being right beside His fire if we are not part of His fire. (He would rather we be hot, but being cold is better than being lukewarm, Rev. 3:16) Following one’s own heart is in Yahuwah’s eyes worse than idolatry, because it indicates that we are not even worshipping something outside ourselves, but are worshipping our very selves. If we are not listening to Yahuwah, it means we think we already have enough information to guide us in how to act.


 16:13 therefore shall I cast you forth out of this Land into the land that you have not known, neither you nor your fathers; and there you shall serve other mighty ones day and night; for I shall show you no favor. 

16:14 Because of this (the casting out), the days are coming, says YaHuWaH, that it shall no more be said, As YaHuWaH lives, Who brought up the children of Ysra'al out of the land of Mitsrayim; 


[Because of this: the casting out from the land is what made the larger exodus possible.]


16:15 but, As YaHuWaH lives, Who brought up the children of Ysra'al from the land of the north, and from all the countries where He had driven them. I shall bring them again into their Land that I gave to their fathers

.

Bring them back: or, allow them to return. This exodus will so supersede the earlier one, that people will all but forget it in comparison! And this process has begun today.


16:16 See, I am sending for many fishermen, says YaHuWaH, and they shall fish them up;[Mat. 4:19] and afterward I shall send for many hunters, and they shall hunt them from every mountain, and from every hill, and from out of the holes bored into the rocky cliffs.   


Fishermen: This is what YaHuWSHuWaH was alluding to when He told the literal fishermen who followed Him that He was now sending them out as fishers of men. (Mat. 4:19) After they have fished: This is the stage we have reached in the present day, for He is taking many who were missionaries out of the Church, and thus terminated the first stage of the job. YaHuWSHuWaH’s parable of the dragnet clarifies what the “hunters” will do. They will sort out the unclean from the clean, and throw back the fish or other creatures caught that are not kosher. (Mat. 13:47ff) I.e., those in the gathered-out congregations that are fit for His consumption will be preserved, and those who are not will become part of the only other entity at the time, the Beast’s worldwide system which no one can buy or sell without identifying with. The Hebrew form of the word “hunt” is not the form that indicates “hunt for themselves”, i.e., to enjoy the provision as their own sustenance. Thus they will not be professional evangelists or pastors who make this their livelihood, but will be doing it for Yahuwah. Holes bored into the rocky cliffs: where Yahuwah had told YirmeYahuw to hide away his waist-sash (13:4).


 16:17 For My eyes are on all their journeyings; they are not hidden from My face, neither is their iniquity concealed from My eyes. 16:18 First I shall recompense their iniquity and their sin double, because they have polluted My Land with the carcasses of their detestable things, and have filled My inheritance with their abominations. 


[Doubly: Each of the two Houses of Ysra'al has a different number of years of punishment assigned to it (Yehezqel 4). Yahuwdah’s was much shorter than Ysra'al’s, being only 40 years, and when doubled = 80. Thus their return to the land began much earlier. Ysra'al’s was 390 years, and when doubled, it is 780 years. From the time of the final exile in 722 B.C.E., this comes out to 46 C.E., the time Sha’ul turned his attention toward the “Gentiles”, which in this case specifically meant those who had “undone their circumcision”]the Northern Kingdom which had mingled with the Gentiles whose company they preferred, and whose punishment was thus to become Gentiles. Hoshea 1 also mentions two sentences, running concurrently: that of “no mercy”, and that of “not being a people”. By the time the first sentence for the Northern Kingdom was up, YaHuWSHuWaH had already come and made amnesty available to individuals from the House of Ysra'al to again become part of the Commonwealth of Ysra'al even in their continued exile, a theme Sha'ul (Eph. 2:12ff), Kefa (1 Peter 1:1; 2:11), and Ya'aqob (James 1:1) all highlighted. YirmeYahuw continues on this same theme:


16:19 O YaHuWaH, my Strength, and my Fortress, and my Refuge, in the day of affliction (tribulation/oppression), the gentiles shall come to you from the ends of the earth, and shall say, "Surely our fathers have inherited only lies, futility, and there is no value in them."


Ends of the earth: can also mean “final [days] of the earth”, which further clarifies the point of reference—our own day. Falsehood: includes the sense of being a disappointment. Vapor: a breath, or vanity—something of no substance. Gentiles: By the first century, Jews spoke of only fellow Jews as “men”; other were counted on the same level as dogs. But this presented one problem: they could not relegate their exiled relatives, the other tribes, to this category, so they spoke of them as “Gentiles” since they had become like a mixture between man and animal. (See notes on 3:17; 4:2) Everything the Apostles wrote about the “Gentiles“ must therefore be taken in this context. The second sentence (not being a people), which was not doubled (as in v. 18), but extended sevenfold (Lev. 26:24) to 2,730 years, is now at an end, and many who thought we were Gentiles are realizing that though Yahuwah allowed us some degree of mercy by providing salvation through YaHuWSHuWaH, have still been understanding Him in many wrong ways, and are now being called to jettison many theological concepts and rediscover what it means to be Ysra'al and to know Yahuwah (v. 21) as Yahuwah and not as anyone else. No benefit: something you cannot “cash in”, but at the root, something by which you cannot ascend; they keep us on the same level where we are. Falsehood: a sham, something meant to deceive. What our parents DID give us served to obscure what they did NOT give us—the Torah, which they said would kill us! So to ascend again, we must call on the merits of our fathers’ fathers, to whom it was given, since we want to be more like them than our immediate ancestors.

 16:20 Shall a man make mighty ones for himself, which yet are not mighty ones? 16:21 This being the case, here I AM, bringing them to admit it; this time I am causing them to know My Hand and My Might; and they shall know that My Name is YaHuWaH.


[Vs. 21. “This being the case, here I am, bringing them to admit [it]; this time I will cause them to recognize My Hand and My Excellency, and they will realize that My Name is YaHuWaH.” ](SFWH of Ysra'al)

This time: literally, this beat, as on occurrence in a rhythmic series. Recognize: or simply, see. As soon as the confession of v. 19 is made, He will be so quick to bring about the Messianic Kingdom, in which His hand (the Mashiyach) will indeed be seen. My excellency: including how much greater I am than they—the very focus of the first lie, as well as His strength, as exhibited previously in the exodus from Mitsrayim.


 (Jer 16:19-21 TFV) O YaHuWaH, my strength, and my fortress, and my refuge in the day of affliction, the Gentiles shall come unto You from the ends of the earth, and shall say, Surely our fathers have inherited lies, vanity, and things wherein there is no profit. {20} Shall a man make elohim unto himself, and they are no elohim? {21} Therefore, behold, I will this once cause them to know, I will cause them to know My Hand and My might; and they shall know that My name is YaHuWaH.


17:1 The sin of Yahuwdah is written with a pen of iron, and with the point of a diamond: it is engraved on the tablet of their heart, and on the horns of your altars;  17:2 while their children remember their altars and their Asherim by the green trees on the high hills. 


Asherim: a linguistically improper term, for it is a masculine plural. The singular form is Asherah, which is feminine. The proper plural is asheroth. We do find that term used 3 times in Scripture, but Asherim is used 16 times in Scripture. Joseph Good says it could be a "marriage of the names" of two gods. The amulets associated with Asherah were themselves shaped like a womb. They were highly stylized, with sexual features emphasized. Some of the "groves" were phallic symbols that did not represent Asherah, but were said to be "for" her—i.e., her consorts. So the masculine form of her name is used for them. As "Artemis of the Ephesians", she is mentioned in Acts. Idols were more often meant to convey functions and attributes of the gods than their appearance. (They were pictograms, not portraits.) Some were life-sized and of wood, sometimes overlaid with silver or gold, with eyes of precious stones. A.L. Oppenheim explains that the "deity" was present in the image if its paraphernalia showed certain crucial features and it was treated in a special manner. Its ruwach was “made present” by a rite called "opening or washing the mouth". It was fed twice a day, because they believed it needed nourishment. It was outfitted in splendor, lavishly clothed in blue and purple. (10:9) They did not worship the image itself, but the god they believed was in it. In a sort of "mystic unity", the statue "became" what it represented. The deity therefore both was and was not the idol. Fornication with the priests (as with Eli's sons) was counted as having relations with the god itself.


17:3 O My mountain [Ysra'al] on the plain!, I shall give your substance and all your treasures for a spoil, and your high places, because of sin, throughout all your territories.  17:4 You, even of yourself, shall let it drop from your inheritance that I gave you; and I shall cause you to serve your enemies in the land which you don’t know: for you have kindled a fire in My anger which shall burn into the ages.


Let it drop: fall or rest; from the same root as the release in the fiftieth year, when debts are all canceled and inherited lands returned to the owners who have had to sell them to pay debts. (Lev. 25:10-11). This time it would “fall” to their enemies instead of to its original owners.


17:5 Thus says YaHuWaH: Cursed is the man who trusts in man, and makes flesh his arm, and whose heart turns away from YaHuWaH.  For he shall be like the heath in the desert, and shall not see when good comes, but shall inhabit the parched places in the wilderness, in the land of Salt that is not inhabited. 


Shrub: identified variously as a heath, juniper, wild tamarisk (LXX), or thistle (Aramaic). The root word indicates “something to be razed, stripped off, or wiped away”—almost like a rootless tumbleweed. Land of Salt: in the Arabah (part of the Great Rift Valley south of where the Yarden flows), this has to mean the area around the Dead Sea, which is full of salt and mineral residue, the remnants of S’dom’s overthrow.


17:7 Blessed is the man who trusts in YaHuWaH, and Whose trust YaHuWaH IS. 17:8 For he shall be as a tree planted by the waters, who spreads out its roots by the river, and shall not fear when heat comes, but its leaf shall be green; and shall not be careful in the year of drought, neither shall cease from yielding fruit. 

17:9 The heart is crooked above all, and is desperately sick: who can know it? 


Insidious: sly, slippery, deceitful. Contrast this with today’s popular philosophy of “following your heart”. LXX, the heart is deep… and it is the man. It will lie to you more than haSatan will!


17:10 I, YaHuWaH, search the heart, I try the kidneys, even to give every man according to his habitual manners, according to the fruit of his practices.


Affections: or mind; literally, kidneys, the physical organ that performs the same function of discerning and choosing what to retain and what to dispose of, but also seen anciently as the seat of thoughts and emotions (the gut reaction we cannot control, and thus what shows what we really fear). Habitual manners: literally, paths or ways—i.e., the course he continues on. Practices: or actions, accomplishments—what we actually get done. (Mat. 21:28ff) This is how He tests us. (Mat. 7:16, 20)


 17:11 As the partridge that sits on eggs which she has not laid, so is he who gets riches, and not by right; in the midst of his days they shall leave him, and at his end he shall be a fool. 


17:12 An exalted throne, set on high from the beginning, is the site of our Set-apart Place.

Aramaic:" Punishment shall be exacted of him before the One whose Sh’khina is upon the throne of Qabowd in the heavens on high… corresponding to the place of the House of our Sanctuary." This shows how ancient is the tradition that the heavenly throne sits just above the site of the Temple, which the rabbis say is what “Yahrushalom is established as a city that is joined together” means. (Psalm 122:3)


 17:13 O YaHuWaH, the Purification Pool [Hope/Expectation] of Ysra'al, all who forsake You shall be ashamed; those who depart from Me shall be written in the earth, because they have forsaken YaHuWaH, the Fountain of living waters.  


[purification pool]. [ Yahuwchanan 8: 7-8 But YaHuWSHuWaH stooped down, and wrote on the ground with His finger. But when they continued asking Him, He looked up and said to them, “He who is without sin among you, let him throw the first stone at her.” Again He stooped down, and with His finger wrote on the ground. - the day before He had proclaimed Himself as the One to whom one could come to for "living waters" ... during greatest day of Sukkot] ....  YaHuWSHuWaH alluded to this verse one Sukkoth by writing on the ground the names of those who had brought the woman taken in adultery to Him for judgment. (Yahuwchanan 8) By trying to trap Him in His words, they proved they had turned away from YaHuWaH, for He had just the previous day (Yoch. 7:37-38) in the Hekal during the water-pouring ceremony on the greatest day of Sukkoth (v. 10), proclaimed Himself the One anyone could come to if he was thirsty for living water (i.e., purification). And, true to the verse, they turned away and departed in shame, beginning with the oldest, who had heard the liturgy more often and recognized the connection. After the Day of Atonement, when the gates are closed, there may yet remain some grace, but if someone is still unrepentant by the end of Sukkoth, he has sealed his choice.


17:14 Heal me, O YaHuWaH, so that I am healed; deliver me, and I will be delivered: for You are my Object of praise.

 17:15 Here they are indeed, saying to me, Where is the Word of YaHuWaH? Please let it come now. 

Where: the term used is a rhetorical one, so we need to see the sarcasm in their question.


17:16 As for me, I have not run away from being a shepherd following after You; neither have I desired the woeful day; You know that which came out of my lips was before Your face. 17:17 Don’t be a terror to me: You are my refuge in the day of evil. 17:18 Let them be disappointed who persecute me, but let not me be disappointed; let them be dismayed, but don’t let me be dismayed; bring on them the day of evil, and destroy them with double destruction.


17:19 Thus said YaHuWaH to me: Go, and stand in the gate of the children of the people, through which the sovereigns of Yahuwdah come in, and by which they go out, and in all the gates of Yahrushalom; 17:20 and tell them, Hear the Word of YaHuWaH, you sovereigns of Yahuwdah, and all Yahuwdah, and all the inhabitants of Yahrushalom, that enter in by these gates: 17:21 Thus says YaHuWaH, Take heed to yourselves, and bear no burden on the Shabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Yahrushalom; 17:22 neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the Shabbath day, neither do any work: but make the Shabbath day set-apart, as I commanded your fathers.


Work: not the word for service to others, but livelihood, business, or craftsmanship which is for the purpose of benefiting yourself.


 17:23 But they didn’t listen, neither turn their ear, but made their neck stiff, that they might not hear, and might not receive instruction. 


Hold out their ears: as if they could not understand, but wanted to. One cannot “walk circumspectly” (aware of the dangers on all sides) if he is stiff-necked and only looking at the path he has chosen to walk.


17:24 It shall happen, if you diligently listen to Me, says YaHuWaH, to bring in no burden through the gates of this city on the shabbath day, but to make the shabbath day set-apart, to do no work therein; 17:25 then shall there enter in by the gates of this city sovereigns and princes sitting on the throne of Dawiyd, riding in chariots and on horses, they, and their princes, the men of Yahuwdah, and the inhabitants of Yahrushalom; and this city shall remain forever. 17:26 They shall come from the cities of Yahuwdah, and from the places around Yahrushalom, and from the land of Binyamin, and from the lowland, and from the hill country, and from the south, bringing burnt offerings, and slaughterers, and meal offerings, and frankincense, and bringing slaughterers of thanksgiving, to the House of YaHuWaH.  27. But if you shall not listen to Me to make the shabbath day set-apart, and not to bear a burden and enter in at the gates of Yahrushalom on the shabbath day; then shall I kindle a fire in its gates, and it shall devour the palaces of Yahrushalom, and it shall not be quenched.


Palaces: from a word meaning elevated; as seen from archaeology, the highest buildings in many cities were the palaces and temples (where unauthorized ones were built). Interestingly, Herschel describes the Sabbath as a “palace in time”. Since they did not respect this palace, the physical ones were taken away as well.



18:1 The Word which came to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH, saying, 18:2 Arise, and go down to the potter’s house, and there I shall cause you to hear My Words.


House: the first letter in the Torah is “beyt”, which means house; as we see what happens in verse 4, there is a clear parallel with the judgment of the world prior to our own and the reconstitution that took place when the world we are familiar with was created.


 18:3 Then I went down to the potter’s house according to the Word of YaHuWaH, and behold, he was making a work on the wheels. 18:4 When the vessel that he made of the clay was marred in the hand of the potter, he made it again another vessel, as seemed good to the potter to make it.


 [ “O YaHuWaH, You are our Father! We are the clay, and You are the One Who forms us; we are all the workmanship of Your hand.” (Yash. 64:8).]

Was damaged: or ruined; LXX, fell. If the clay is not kneaded properly, a small bubble, lump, or bulge can remain in the clay can make it impossible to center the clay to form it into a particular vessel, since this anomaly has a ripple effect while the wheel spins, and makes the whole vessel lopsided. If it becomes ruined like this, it all collapses, and cannot be straightened out; the only thing left to do is throw it away, or flatten it again and start over. This is a lot more work, but the covenant demands that He study the clay itself to see what shape would be more appropriate according to the material he is working with. Often it is tossed into a bucket with other bad clay and reshaped together. This is like the Northern Kingdom, which was tossed out among the other nations until it was ready for Yahuwah to rework into a people again.


18:5 Then the Word of YaHuWaH came to me, saying, 18:6 O House of Ysra'al, can’t I do with you as this potter? says YaHuWaH. Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are you in My hand, O House of Ysra'al.  


[We are dug out of the mire (a Hebrew word that is often used to represent the world at large), and set up on the rocks where He can form us. (Psalm 40:2 He brought me up also out of a horrible pit, out of the miry clay. He set my feet on a Rock, and gave me a firm place to stand. 40:3 He has put a new song in my mouth, even praise to our Aluahiym. (Amein !)We cannot question His choices or why He forms us the way He does. (YashaYahuw 29:15-16; 30:14; 41:25; 44:21ff; 45:7-10; Romans 9:15-24) We are not our own, but He has chosen to use us for His purposes. What He most wants to build from the clay vessels that we are now (2 Cor. 4:6ff) is a mold for the golden vessels that will result after He burns away our impurities—an unpleasant experience, but not one we cannot bear, since He applies a predetermined degree of stress to make us come out just right. (1 Kings 7:46; Ya'aqob/James 1:2; 1 Kefa/Peter 1:6; 1 Cor. 10:12ff) For this to be accomplished, we have to remove the things that are in our vessels which stand in His way (2 Timothy 2:20ff, and trust His judgment. If we do not, He will have to pour caustic materials in to eat away what has hardened onto the inside of the pots, so that there is hope that they can be used after all. If we do not submit to it, we will be put on the shelf.

[Romans 9:20 But indeed, O man, who are you to talk back to Aluahiym? Will the thing formed ask Him who formed it, “Why did You make me like this?”  9:21 Or hasn’t the Potter a right over the clay, from the same lump to make one part a vessel for honor, and another for dishonor? [YirmeYahuw 18:1-6] 9:22 What if YaHuWaH, willing to show His wrath, and to make His power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath made for destruction, 9:23 and that He might make known the riches of His esteem on vessels of mercy, which He prepared beforehand for esteem, 9:24 Even us, whom He also called, not from the Yahuwdims only, but also from the Gentiles?]   Ephrayim, too, thought it was bad when He started applying the pressure. (Hoshea 7)] 


18:7 The moment I shall speak concerning a nation, and concerning a reign, to pluck up and to break down and to destroy it; 18:8 if that nation, concerning which I have spoken, turn from their evil, I shall repent of the evil that I thought to do to them. 18:9 The moment I shall speak concerning a nation, and concerning a reign, to build and to plant it; 18:10 if they do that which is evil in My sight, that they do not obey My Voice, then I shall repent of the good, with which I said I would benefit them. 


Compare YaHuWSHuWaH’s parable of the two sons (Mat. 21:28-32) and the branches that boast arrogantly that they have been grafted in to replace others that were broken off. (Rom. 11:16-24)


18:11 Now therefore, speak to the man of Yahuwdah, and to the inhabitants of Yahrushalom, saying, Thus says YaHuWaH:‘Indeed I am fashioning trouble for you, and devising a plan against you. Each of you, turn back from his evil course, and make your directions and practices right!’


[Fashioning: the same word as for “potter” above (literally, the one who fashions or shapes). Remember, his audience are priests, who already know what is right.]


 18:12 But they say, "Give up any hope of that, for we shall walk after our own plans, and we shall do everyone after the stubbornness of his evil heart."


Give up hope: or, it’s hopeless; i.e., we have a whole economy built on the worship that is going on now. Think of how many people would be out of jobs if we changed things! (cf. Acts 19:27) We can’t upset this! Though we have all these examples of our forebears’ How different is this from, “I know it’s right to keep the Sabbath and not Sunday, but I’d lose my job if I did!”? These well-off clerics had too much to lose, even though they would have been well-rewarded for being the servants they were meant to be in Ysra'al. But they feared something besides Yahuwah. Such people usually say, “He knows My heart”, but we have seen (17:9) that our hearts are deceitful and that our hearts are revealed through our deeds.


18:13 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH: Ask now among the nations, who has heard such things; the virgin of Ysra'al has done a very horrible thing. 18:14 Does the green grass vanish from the mountain or the snow leave Lebanon, or shall the cold waters that flow down from afar be dried up? 18:15 For My people have forgotten Me, they have burned incense to false mighty ones; and they have been made to stumble in their ways, and have departed from the ancient paths, to walk in a way not built up; 18:16 to make their Land an astonishment, and a perpetual hissing; everyone who passes thereby shall be astonished, and shake his head. 18:17 I shall scatter them as with an east wind (judgment term) before the enemy; I shall show them My back, and not My face, in the day of their calamity. 


18:18 Then they said, Come, and let us devise schemes against YirmeYahuw; for the Torah shall not perish from the priest, nor counsel from the wise, nor the word from the prophet. Come, and let us strike him with the tongue, and let us not give heed to any of his words. 18:19 Give heed to me, O YaHuWaH, and listen to the voice of those who contend with me. 18:20 Shall evil be recompensed for good? For they have dug a pit for my being. Remember how I stood before You to speak good for them, to turn away Your wrath from them. 18:21 Therefore deliver up their children to the famine, and give them over to the power of the sword; and let their wives become childless, and widows; and let their men be slain of death, and their young men struck of the sword in battle.  18:22 Let a cry be heard from their houses, when You shall bring a troop suddenly on them; for they have dug a pit to take me, and hid snares for my feet. 18:23 Yet, YaHuWaH, You know all their counsel against me to kill me; don’t cover over their guilt, neither blot out their sin from Your sight; but let them be overthrown before You; deal with them in the time of Your anger. 


 This is a custom-ordered massacre! (Compare Psalm 109; YashaYahuw 13:16) He sees that the Land continues to be defiled as the Kena'anites before them had, and so it needs to be emptied out and re-conquered. Remember, these were his own nephews and nieces he was asking to have killed, because though He interceded on their behalf, they did not uphold him. This man who hears from Yahuwah understands justice, though in our modern world, he seems so intolerant and unchristian. To treat a cancer, you sometimes have to remove other cells as well. Chemotherapy operates in the hope that the cancer cells will die off before their host dies. This is why it has taken so long to cleanse the people of Ysra'al and prepare the new man in Yahuwah’s image for Him to inhabit as a Temple.



19:1 Thus said YaHuWaH, Go, and buy a potter’s earthen jug, and take with you some of the elders of the people, and of the elders of the priests; 19:2 and go forth to the valley of the Son of Hinnom, which is by the opening of the Potsherd Gate, and proclaim there the words that I shall tell you; 19:3 and say, Hear the Word of YaHuWaH, sovereigns of Yahuwdah, and inhabitants of Yahrushalom: thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, Here I am bringing evil on this Place, which whoever hears, his ears shall tingle. 19:4 Because they have forsaken Me, and have teated this Place as strange, and have burned incense in it to other mighty ones, that they didn’t know, they and their fathers and the sovereigns of Yahuwdah; and have filled this Place with the blood of innocents,


Strange: or foreign; compare Hoshea 8:12, where Efrayim calls the Torah a “strange thing”, which was the reason for the Northern Kingdom’s exile. Now Yahuwdah is doing the same.


 19:5 and have built the high places of Ba'al, to burn their sons in the fire as ascending offerings to Ba'al; which I didn’t command, nor spoke it, neither did it even cross My mind!


Cross My mind: literally, come up onto My heart. Thousands of tiny bull-idols and Ashtaroth from the period of Hebrew occupation have been found in Yahrushalom. Archaeologist Gabi Barkey located it at the juncture of the three valleys that frame Yahrushalom. A complete graveyard of earthenware ossuaries marked “for Ba’al” have been unearthed at the Tofeth with children’s bones in them, including babies.


 19:6 Therefore, indeed, the days come, says YaHuWaH, that this place shall no more be called Topheth, nor The Valley of the Son of Hinnom, but The Valley of Slaughter. 


Tofeth means “spitting”; i.e., a byword whose name people loathe even to mention. Though YoshiYahuw had taken special pains to defile this place when bringing his reforms (2 Kings 23), the practice was started up again. After 586 B.C., the Valley of Hinnom (Ge-Henna in Greek) is referred to as a perpetually-burning rubbish heap. After such an awful usage, no one wanted to use it for anything but garbage.


19:7 I shall make void the counsel of Yahuwdah and Yahrushalom in this Place; and I shall cause them to fall by the sword before their enemies, and by the hand of those who seek their life: and their dead bodies shall I give to be food for the birds of the sky, and for the beasts of the earth.


[There is a secondary fulfillment of this slaughter in the last days when the blood flows up to the horses’ bridles in the Topheth, also the site of Anointed’s tribunal. (Yoel 3:12-17; Rev. 14:20; 19:18) The Sheep and Goats judgment will also take place here. (Mat. 25:31ff) The remains of those who transgressed against YaHuWaH will still be visible here for the pilgrims who come up to Yahrushalom for the Millennial feasts to see. (YashaYahuw 66:24) The valleys then will undoubtedly be deeper, as the Temple Mount is raised to be the highest of hills. (Micha 4:1)]


 19:8 I shall make this city an astonishment, and a hissing; everyone who passes thereby shall be astonished and hiss because of all its plagues. 19:9 I shall cause them to eat the flesh of their sons and the flesh of their daughters; and they shall eat everyone the flesh of his friend, in the siege and in the distress, with which their enemies, and those who seek their life, shall distress them.


  19:10 Then you shall break the jug in the sight of the men who go with you, 19:11 and shall tell them, Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies: Even so shall I break this people and this city, as one breaks a potter’s vessel, that can’t be made whole again; and they shall bury in Topheth, until there be no place to bury. 19:12 Thus shall I do to this Place, says YaHuWaH, and to its inhabitants, even making this city as Topheth:  19:13 and the houses of Yahrushalom, and the houses of the sovereigns of Yahuwdah, which are defiled, shall be as the place of Topheth, even all the houses on whose roofs they have burned incense to all the army of the sky, and have poured out drink offerings to other mighty ones. 19:14 Then came YirmeYahuw from Topheth, where YaHuWaH had sent him to prophesy; and he stood in the court of YaHuWaH’s House, and said to all the people: 19:15 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, Behold, I shall bring on this city and on all its towns all the evil that I have pronounced against it; because they have made their neck stiff, that they may not hear My Words.


20:1 Now Pashchuwr, the son of Immer the priest, who was chief officer in the House of YaHuWaH, heard YirmeYahuw prophesying these things. 20:2 Then Pashchuwr both beat YirmeYahuw the prophet, and put him in the stocks that were in the upper gate of Binyamin, which was in the House of YaHuWaH.


Gate of Binyamin: the northern part of the Temple complex was in Binyamin’s tribal land. If YirmeYahuw could get the common people (v. 21) stirred up, it would weaken the power base of those who were abusing their position. Pash’hur thought this embarrassment would shut YirmeYahuw up and elicit a cowering apology. Instead he gets a bold rebuke:


20:3 It happened on the next day, that Pashchuwr brought forth YirmeYahuw out of the stocks. Then said YirmeYahuw to him, YaHuWaH has not called your name Pashchuwr - "freedom", but Magowr mis-Sabiyb - "terror from every side".


Pash’hur means “freedom” or “torn loose”, reminding us of the garment Abiyah the prophet tore into 12 pieces to represent the dividing of the kingdom. If self is torn up, we are free. But to Christian theology, freedom is having the Torah torn up. Yet this is not freedom at all. There must be boundaries, as set by the “perfect law of liberty”. (Ya'aqob 1:25) Magor-Misabib means “terror from every side”; LXX, “exile” (which was the bottom line). He feels secure in this freedom, but he has set aside the Torah, which is something that cannot be set aside without eventual consequences; freedom set on the wrong base must fall, leaving us wide open and exposed to terror. Without law, anyone can take whatever he wants without repercussions, and nothing can be done about it, because there is no justice. Freedom specifically means one cannot do whatever he wants. Babel always seems to be connected with a reckoning. (e.g., Rev. 18:9-15) Babel has continued through a set of philosophies and principles.


 20:4 For thus says YaHuWaH, Behold, I shall make you a terror to yourself, and to all your friends; and they shall fall by the sword of their enemies, and your eyes shall see it; and I shall give all Yahuwdah into the hand of the sovereign of Babel, and he shall carry them captive to Babel, and shall kill them with the sword. 20:5 Moreover I shall give all the riches of this city, and all its gains, and all the precious things of it, yes, all the treasures of the sovereigns of Yahuwdah shall I give into the hand of their enemies; and they shall make them a prize, and take them, and carry them to Babel. 20:6 You, Pashchuwr, and all who dwell in your house shall go into captivity; and you shall come to Babel, and there you shall die, and there you shall be buried, you, and all your friends, to whom you have prophesied falsely. 


 20:7 YaHuWaH, You have seduced me, and I was persuaded; You were stronger than I, and have prevailed: I am become a laughing-stock all day long, every one mocks me.


Seduced: implies intimacy, and he could not resist. He wishes he could get away from his family’s hating him and disrespect from his whole nation, but he cannot. He gives in, saying Yahuwah has won. But the fact that he did not insist on his freedom “bought” him his own freedom once the captivity would begin. Therefore, he is the freest person in the equation. Sha'ul, on the other hand, insisted on his rights as a Roman citizen, and it ended up costing him his life after years in custody.


 20:8 For as often as I speak, I cry out; I cry, Violence and destruction! because the Word of YaHuWaH is made a reproach to me, and a derision, all the day. 20:9 If I say, I shall not make mention of Him  [name the Name of YaHuWaH], nor speak any more in His Name, then there is in my heart as it were a burning fire shut up in my bones, and I weary myself to hold it in, but cannot! 

  20:10 For I have heard the whispered slander of many, terror on every side: Expose! Yes, let's expose him! Inquiring of my peace with their mouth, but hating me in their heart; perhaps we can win him over and we shall take our revenge on him. 


Terror on every side: the same as the new name Yahuwah had given to Pash’hur. Watching for me to stumble: LXX, Watch his intentions!


 20:11 But YaHuWaH is with me as an awesome Mighty One: therefore my persecutors shall stumble, and they shall not prevail; they shall be utterly disappointed, because they have not dealt wisely, even with an everlasting confusion which shall never be forgotten. 20:12 But, YaHuWaH Master of Armies, Who scrutinizes the righteous, Who sees the heart and the mind, let me see Your vengeance on them; for to You have I revealed my cause.


His audience has already been judged; his faithfulness to keep prophesying in the face of such opposition was more for his own sake, because it raised his standing before Yahuwah. He understands it is a test, and submits to it; he only asks that it be over quickly.


 20:13 Sing to YaHuWaH! Praise YaHuWaH; for He has snatched the being of the needy from the hand of evildoers. 


YashaYahuw 27: 12-13 It shall happen in That Day, that YaHuWaH shall thresh from the flowing stream of the Parath to the brook of Mitsrayim; and you shall be gathered one by one , O children of Ysra'al. 27:13 It shall happen in That Day that a Great Shofar shall be blown; and those who were ready to perish in the land of Ashshuwr, and those who were outcasts in the land of Mitsrayim, shall come; and they shall worship YaHuWaH in the qodesh Mountain at Yahrushalom. ]


20:14 Cursed is the day in which I was born: don’t let the day in which my mother bore me be blessed. 20:15 Cursed is the man who brought news to my father , saying,  "A boy is born to you"; making him very glad. 20:16 Let that man be as the cities which YaHuWaH overthrew, and didn’t regret it: though He heard the outcry in the morning, and shouting at noontime; 

The cities: probably S’dom and Ghamorah.

20:17 because He did not slay me from the womb; and so my mother would have been my grave, and my conception would have remained in the womb forever. 20:18 Why came I forth out of the womb to see labor and sorrow, that my days should be consumed with shame?  


 [Or, Why is it that I came out…? Shame: or confusion. Everyone thinks he is a lunatic and that he has betrayed them - except YaHuWaH, and this is all he has to hang onto.]


21:1 The Word which came to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH, when sovereign TsidqiYahuw sent to him Pashchuwr the son of MalkiYahuw, and TsephanYahuw the son of Ma'aseYahuw, the priest, saying, 


This is a different Pash’hur from the one in chapter 20. This “freedom” is the son of “Yahuwah is my king”—the only true freedom; the other’s father was named “He truly said”—reminiscent of haSatan’s casting of doubts on Yahuwah’s intentions in Eden. This apparent freedom is a sham. TsidqiYahuw means “Yahuwah is my righteousness”. Ts’fanyahuw means “Yahuwah has stored up”. Ma'aseyahuw means “an act of Yahuwah”.


21:2 Please inquire of YaHuWaH for us; for Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel makes war against us: perhaps YaHuWaH shall deal with us according to all His wondrous works, that he (Nebuwkadne'tstsar) may be removed from us. 21:3 Then said YirmeYahuw to them, You shall tell TsidqiYahuw: 21:4 Thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, Here I am turning back the weapons of war that are in your hands, with which you fight against the sovereign of Babel, and against the Kasdiy who besiege you, without the walls; and I will indeed remove them  -- into the middle of this city! 


They asked Him to take the Khasdim (Chaldean) army away from the outskirts of the city; He will do so, but not in the way they are hoping for! YirmeYahuw will appear to be a traitor, because they have been traitors for generations. Probably the reason they did not kill him was that they now see his words beginning to come true. They should be fearing Yahuwah instead of the Babylonians , so He turns them over to what they fear. (Compare 1:17)


 21:5 I Myself shall fight against you with an outstretched Hand and with a strong Arm, even in anger, and in wrath, and in great indignation. 21:6 I shall strike the inhabitants of this city, both man and animal: they shall die of a great pestilence.  21:7 Afterward, says YaHuWaH, I shall deliver TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah, and his servants, and the people, even such as are left in this city from the pestilence, from the sword, and from the famine, into the hand of Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel, and into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of those who seek their life: and he shall strike them with the edge of the sword; he shall not spare them, neither have pity, nor have mercy.

21:8 To this people you shall say, Thus says YaHuWaH: Behold, I set before you the Way of Life and the way of death.


Yahuwah is reiterating a choice He vividly portrayed to Ysra'al in Yahushua’s day. (Compare Deut. 11:26; 28; 30:19; Yahushua. 8:33ff.)


 21:9 He who remains in this city shall die by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence; but he who goes out, and passes over to the Kasdiy who besiege you, he shall live, and his life shall be to him for a prize [a gift] [all he will have left is his life]. 21:10 For I have set My face on this city for evil, and not for good, says YaHuWaH: it shall be given into the hand of the sovereign of Babel, and he shall burn it with fire. 21:11 Then to the house of the sovereign of Yahuwdah, say, hear the Word of YaHuWaH! 21:12 O House of Dawiyd, thus says YaHuWaH, Execute justice in the morning, and deliver him who is robbed out of the hand of the oppressor, lest My wrath go forth like fire, and burn so that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings.


[They have reached the “seventy-times-seven” limit of which YaHuWSHuWaH spoke. (2 Chron. 36:21) For 490 years they had not obeyed His command to let the land have a rest every seven years, so now He would recoup those years by sending them into captivity for 70 years.]


 21:13 Behold, I am against you, O inhabitant of the valley, O you who are hidden below the plain, says YaHuWaH; you that say, "Who shall come down against us? or who shall enter into our habitations?"


Penetrate into us: LXX, alarm us. They are still cocksure that their current prosperity guarantees that Yahuwah will not bring any punishment upon them. The king’s audacity in refusing to pay tribute to Babel is what brought the army after them, on the natural (political) level.


21:14 I shall punish you according to the fruit of your doings, says YaHuWaH; and I shall kindle a fire in her villages, and it shall devour all that is around her.


22:1 Thus said YaHuWaH: Go down to the house of the sovereign of Yahuwdah, and speak there this word, 22:2 Say, Hear the Word of YaHuWaH, sovereign of Yahuwdah, who sits on the throne of Dawiyd, you, and your servants, and your people who enter in by these gates. 22:3 Thus says YaHuWaH: Execute justice and righteousness, and deliver him who is robbed out of the hand of the oppressor: and do no wrong, do no violence, to the foreigner, the father less, nor the widow; neither shed innocent blood in this place.  22:4 For if you do this thing indeed, then shall there enter in by the gates of this house sovereigns sitting on the throne of Dawiyd, riding in chariots and on horses, he, and his servants, and his people.

22:5 But if you shall not hear these words, I swear by Myself, says YaHuWaH, that this House shall become a desolation. 22:6 For thus says YaHuWaH concerning the house of the sovereign of Yahuwdah: You are Gil'ad to me, and the head of Lebanown; yet surely I shall make you a desert, like a city not inhabited. 22:7 I shall prepare destroyers against you, everyone with his weapons; and they shall cut down your choice cedars, and cast them into the fire. 22:8 Many nations shall pass by this city, and they shall say every man to his neighbor, Why has YaHuWaH done thus to this great city? 22:9 Then they shall answer, Because they forsook the covenant of YaHuWaH their Aluahiym, and worshiped other mighty ones, and served them.

 22:10 Don’t weep for the dead, neither bemoan him; but weep bitterly for him who goes away; for he shall return no more, nor see the land of his birth. 22:11 For thus says YaHuWaH touching Shalluwm the son of YoshiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah, who reigned instead of YoshiYahuw his father, and who went forth out of this place: He shall not return there any more. 22:12 But in the place where they have led him captive, there shall he die, and he shall see this land no more.  22:13 Woe to him who builds his house by unrighteousness, and his upper rooms by injustice; who uses his neighbor’s service without wages, and doesn’t give him his hire; 


Debarim 24:14 You shall not oppress a hired servant who is poor and needy, whether he be of your brothers, or of your foreigners who are in your land within your gates: 24:15 in his day you shall give him his hire, neither shall the sun go down on it; for he is poor, and sets his heart on it: lest he cry against you to YaHuWaH, and it be sin to you.



22:14 who says, I shall build for myself wide houses with spacious upper rooms and cuts out windows for them and covers them with cedar and paints them with vermilion. 22:15 Shall you reign, because you strive to excel in cedar? Didn’t your father eat and drink, and do justice and righteousness? then it was well with him. 22:16 He judged the cause of the poor and needy; then it was well. Wasn’t this to know Me? says YaHuWaH.  But your eyes and your heart are not but for your covetousness, and for shedding innocent blood, and for oppression, and for violence, to do it. 22:18 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH concerning Yahuwyaqim the son of YoshiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah: they shall not lament for him, saying, Ah my brother! or, Ah sister! They shall not lament for him, saying Ah lord! or, Ah his majesty! 22:19 He shall be buried with the burial of a donkey, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Yahrushalom. 


 22:20 Go up to Lebanown, and cry; and lift up your voice in Bashan, and cry from Abarim; for all your lovers are defeated. 22:21 I spoke to you in your prosperity; but you said, I shall not hear. This has been your manner from your youth, that you didn’t obey My Voice. 22:22 All your shepherds shall shepherd the wind [have no sheep left to tend], and your lovers shall go into captivity: surely then you shall be ashamed and confounded for all your wickedness. 22:23 Inhabitant of Lebanown (Yahrushalom), who makes your nest in the cedars, how greatly to be pitied you shall be when pangs come on you, the pain as of a woman in travail! 22:24 As I live, says YaHuWaH, though KonYahuw the son of Yahuwyaqim sovereign of Yahuwdah were the signet on My Right Hand, yet would I pluck you off; 22:25 and I shall give you into the hand of those who seek your life, and into the hand of them of whom you are afraid, even into the hand of Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel, and into the hand of the Kasdiy. 22:26 I shall cast you out, and your mother who bore you, into another country, where you were not born; and there you shall die. 22:27 But to the land whereunto their being longs to return, there shall they not return.  22:28 Is this man KonYahuw [Yehoyachin] a despised broken vessel? Is he a vessel in which none delights? Why are they cast out, he and his seed, and are cast into the land which they don’t know? 22:29 O land, land, land, hear the Word of YaHuWaH: Thus says YaHuWaH, Write you this man childless, a man who shall not prosper in his days; for no more shall a man of his seed prosper, sitting on the throne of Dawiyd, and ruling in Yahuwdah.

23:1 Woe to the shepherds [pastors] who destroy and scatter the sheep of My pasture! says YaHuWaH.


Scatter: the opposite of uniting them—making each go his own direction, which is dissipation. Even if physically present, they have wandered off in their hearts and forgotten their true identity as Hebrews, so He will just finish the process. Yahuwchanan11:52 tells of the reversal of this curse through Mashiyach.


 23:2 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, against the shepherds who feed My people: You have scattered My flock, and driven them away [mislead them], and have not visited them; behold, I shall visit on you the evil of your doings, says  YaHuWaH. 23:3 I shall gather the remnant of My flock out of all the countries where I have driven them, and shall bring them again to their sheepfolds; and they shall be fruitful and multiply.


I have driven: yet He just blamed the shepherds for driving them away. He had to do so because they had defiled His Land, but the shepherds are the ones who bore the responsibility; the sheep could come back after an appropriate time of punishment. These were the “other sheep not of this fold” whom He would collect back and merge into one with Yahuwdah again. (Yoch. 10:16) Those who hear the shepherd’s voice (in the pure tongue of Hebrew) have circumcised ears, having removed the Hellenized church teachings that stop them up to who we really are. Fruitful and multiply: the name of Efrayim and a specific prophecies about Menashe (Gen. 48:19), but also the exact words used in Yahuwah’s first command to mankind. Thus this will also finally bring about the obedience to the command Yahuwah gave to Adam and Hawah. (Gen. 1:22; 8:17)


  23:4 I shall set up shepherds over them, who shall feed them; and they shall fear no more, nor be dismayed, neither shall any be lacking, says  YaHuWaH.


Shepherds: plural, not just YaHuWSHuWaH (v. 6), but those who are under Him—those over thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens. (Exodus 18:21) Ysra'al will finally be organized the way He wants it. The message of “no fear” is what will nourish them. Missing: or, lacking anything (either of provision or of any aspect of truth, since they will be taught its fullness; compare Amos 9:9). THEN the King can come…


 23:5 Behold, the Days come, says YaHuWaH, that I shall raise to Dawiyd a righteous Branch (Tsemech (צמח) - Al Zimach)(Zech. 6:12), and He shall reign as Sovereign and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land.  23:6 In His Days Yahuwdah shall be delivered, and Ysra'al shall dwell safely; and this is His Name by which He shall be called: YaHuWaH OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. … [which makes YaHuWaH, YaHuWSHuWaH our Savior](see also chp. 33:16 where His city is given the same name.) 23:7 Therefore, behold, the days come, says YaHuWaH, that they shall no more say, As YaHuWaH lives, Who brought up the children of Ysra'al out of the land of Mitsrayim; 23:8 but, As YaHuWaH lives, Who brought up and Who led the seed of the House of Ysra'al out of the north country, and from all the countries where they have been scattered. They shall dwell in their own land.    [Rev. 7:1-8; 12:13-16; Yash. 27:12-13]


He reiterates the promise given in 16:14-15, changing “the descendants of Ysra'al” to the more specific “seed of the House of Ysra'al”, that is, the Northern Kingdom in particular, and its physical, not just ruwachual seed. YaHuWaH did not forsake them and start over with someone else, but has already begun bringing back the very same kodesh race to fulfill the calling that our forefathers left off.


23:9 Concerning the prophets. My heart within me is broken, all my bones shake; I am like a drunken man, and like a man whom wine has overcome, because of YaHuWaH, and because of His Set-apart Words. 23:10 For the land is full of adulterers; for because of a curse the land mourns; the pastures of the wilderness are dried up. Their course is evil, and their might is not right; 23:11 for both prophet and priest are profane; yes, in My House have I found their wickedness, says YaHuWaH. 23:12  Therefore their way shall be to them as slippery places in the darkness: they shall be driven on, and fall therein; for I shall bring evil on them, even the year of their visitation, says YaHuWaH. 23:13  I have seen folly in the prophets of Shomerown; they prophesied by Ba'al (the lord), and caused My people Ysra'al to err. 23:14 In the prophets of Yahrushalom also I have seen a horrible thing: they commit adultery, and walk in lies; and they strengthen the hands of evildoers, so that none does return from his wickedness: they are all of them become to Me as Sedom, and its inhabitants as Amorah. 23:15 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies concerning the prophets: Behold, I shall feed them with wormwood, and make them drink bitter water; for from the prophets of Yahrushalom is defilement gone forth into all the land.  


Bitter water: The test Yahuwah prescribed for a woman suspected by her husband of adultery. (Num. 5:12-31) If she was guilty, Yahuwah would bring a curse through that water, which was made from words scraped off a scroll—the curse Sha'ul says the Torah brings. It results in the loss of her husband (the opposite of Yahuwah’s putting His Name upon us) and childlessness for life—though she always looks pregnant (with a swollen belly). The root of bitterness is selfishness, and it bears only bitter fruit. (Deut. 29:18; Yesh. 35:3) However, for the woman who is not guilty, the reward of this test is that she bears many more children! (29:28) The Torah is a blessing to the one who works along with it, but a curse to the one who tries to oppose it. Defilement: profaneness (i.e., making something that is set-apart common again) or corruption.


23:16 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, Don’t listen to the words of the prophets who prophesy to you: they teach you vanity; they speak a vision of their own heart, and not out of the mouth of YaHuWaH . 23:17 They say continually to those who despise Me, YaHuWaH has said, You shall have peace; and to everyone who walks in the stubbornness of his own heart they say, No evil shall come on you!


The parallel today is the teaching that we need not “prepare our oil” in advance because we will just be removed from the world before troubled times come.


23:18 For who has stood in the innermost council of YaHuWaH, that he should both perceive and hear His Word? Who has marked His word, and will obey? 


Innermost council: or, intimate secret, the term used for the deepest level of understanding and interpretation of Yahuwah’s Word. We cannot hear the fullness on the literal level, though it is where we must begin, and we cannot divorce the two. (That is how Sha'ul’s words were twisted to our destruction, 2 Kefa 3:16; cf. Mat. 23:23.) The outward works are the package, like the peel of a fruit which houses the real food until it is time to eat it. He is telling the kings here to act like it—to uncover the depths of what He has hidden. (Prov. 25:2)


23:19 Behold, the storm of YaHuWaH, even His wrath, is gone forth, yes, a whirling storm: it shall burst on the head of the wicked. 23:20 The anger of YaHuWaH shall not return, until He has executed, and until He has performed the intents of His heart: in the last days [at the end of days] you shall understand it perfectly. 


also chp. 30:23-24  at the end of days, they will understand it (completely). Compare YashaYahuw 30:8; Psalm 102:18; Daniel 9:24.]


23:21 I sent not these prophets, yet they ran: I didn’t speak to them, yet they prophesied.


These were then men who truly had the prophetic office, yet they must have thought that whatever they said must therefore be true, and were not careful to make sure it was really from Yahuwah and not from their own deductions about what must be the case.


23:22 But if they had stood in My innermost council, then they would have caused My people to hear My Words, and would have turned them from their evil way, and from the evil of their doings.


The blindness has been partially removed for many centuries, but the restoration of the nation has not yet come about, because the fullness of repentance is not possible without this deepest understanding of His secrets. But He is giving it back to us now. Will we get it right this time?


23:23 I am the Aluahiym from nearby, says YaHuWaH, and not an Aluahiym from far away. 23:24 Can any hide himself in secret places so that I shall not see him? says YaHuWaH. Do I not fill heaven and earth? says YaHuWaH.

 23:25 I have heard what the prophets have said, who prophesy lies in My Name, saying, "I have dreamed, I have dreamed." 23:26 How long shall this be in the heart of the prophets [pastors, preachers] who prophesy [teach] lies [the Lie], even the prophets of the deceit of their own heart? 23:27 Through their dreams which they each tell his companion, they devise ways to forget My My Name, as their fathers forgot My Name for the Lord (Ba'al). 


‘The Lord’: Heb., Ba’al. But the name ‘Lord’ is also rooted in the name of a pagan deity, so there is no practical difference in what people do today, except that usually they are ignorant of this fact due to the carelessness or, worse, malicious intent, of their forebears. They miss the mark nonetheless, and it is our responsibility as those who again know His Name to inform His true people of what they are doing. My Name: The first time, the LXX has, My law; thus the two are seen as closely linked.


23:28 The prophet who has a dream within him, let him tell a dream; and he who has My Word within him, let him speak My Word faithfully. What is the chaff to the wheat? says YaHuWaH. 23:29 Isn’t My Word like fire? says YaHuWaH; and like a hammer that breaks the rock in pieces?

 23:30 Therefore, behold, I am against the prophets, says YaHuWaH, who steal My Words everyone from his neighbor. 23:31 Behold, I am against the prophets, says YaHuWaH, who use their tongues, and say, "He says." 23:32 Behold, I am against those who prophesy lying dreams, says YaHuWaH, and do tell them, and cause My people to err by their lies, and by their vain boasting: yet I didn’t send them, nor commanded them; neither do they profit this people at all, says YaHuWaH. 23:33 When this people, or the prophet, or a priest, shall ask you, saying, What is the burden of YaHuWaH? Then you shall tell them, What burden!  I shall cast you off, says YaHuWaH.


What burden? LXX, “You are the burden!” Burden: oracle or utterance. Cast you off: or, let you loose; notice the relationship to the idea of a burden.


  23:34 As for the prophet, and the priest, and the people, who shall say, The burden of YaHuWaH, I shall even punish that man and his house. 23:35 You shall say everyone to his neighbor, and everyone to his brother, What has YaHuWaH answered? and, What has YaHuWaH spoken? 23:36 You shall mention the burden of YaHuWaH no more: for every man’s own word shall be his burden; for you have turned the Words of the living Aluahiym every which way - the words of YaHuWaH Master of Armies our Aluahiym.  23:37 You shall say to the prophet, What has YaHuWaH answered you? and, What has YaHuWaH spoken?  23:38 But if you say, The burden of YaHuWaH; therefore thus says YaHuWaH: Because you say this word, "The burden of YaHuWaH", and I have sent to you, saying, You shall not say, "The burden of YaHuWaH"; 23:39 therefore, behold, I shall utterly forget you, and I shall cast you off, and the city that I gave to you and to your fathers, away from My presence: 23:40 and I shall bring an everlasting reproach on you, and a perpetual shame, which cannot be shrugged off.


This phrase was used frequently by other prophets, especially YashaYahuw, but it must have become a fad, sort of a mark of validity on the prophets’ words, so He would no longer let them use it at all.


24:1 YaHuWaH showed me, and behold, two baskets of figs set before the Hekal of YaHuWaH, after that Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel had carried away captive YeconYahuw the son of Yahuwyaqim, sovereign of Yahuwdah, and the princes of Yahuwdah, with the craftsmen and smiths, from Yahrushalom, and had brought them to Babel.  


[The firstfruits of figs are offered in the Hekal at Sukkoth, so the time of selecting them coincides with Yom T’ruah, when the books are opened in the heavens: - Trumpets]


24:2 One basket had very good figs, like the figs that are first-ripe; and the other basket had very bad figs, which could not be eaten, they were so bad. 24:3 Then said YaHuWaH to me, What do you see, YirmeYahuw? I said, Figs; the good figs, very good; and the bad, very bad, that can’t be eaten, they are so bad. 24:4 The Word of YaHuWaH came to me, saying, 24:5 Thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Like these good figs, so shall I regard the captives of Yahuwdah, whom I have sent out of this place into the land of the Kasdiy for their own good. 24:6 For I shall set my eyes on them for good, and I shall bring them again to this land: and I shall build them, and not pull them down; and I shall plant them, and not pluck them up.


I will fix My eyes on them: Aram., I will set my Memra (Living Word) over them. Plant: or, establish. Yahuwah took special care of those, like Daniel, who were willing to accept His punishment. They ended up being given high positions of honor in Babel because of their wisdom. He removed these dedicated people and made them even more righteous. Though most of the priests were wicked, we see the high priest, Yahuwshuwa, recognized by Yahuwah as righteous when the remnant returns along with Ezra and NechemYahuw, and even the king’s descendant, Zerrubabel (which means “sown in Babel”). The exile was fruitful for them. They maintained a Yahuwdish community and had a group ready to come back and rebuild as soon as their punishment was up.


 24:7 I shall give them a heart to know Me, that I am YaHuWaH: and they shall be My people, and I shall be their Aluahiym; for they shall return to Me with their whole heart.


This was not something that happened magically. The exile did its work. They were put in a hard place where they would appreciate Torah more by its absence, and in this way it was planted deep within them. It is convoluted reasoning that says we need not obey it if it is written on our hearts! If something is on one’s heart, he is thinking about it at every free moment. Hoshua promises the same regarding Efrayim after our much longer exile. May we be the ones it applies to!


 24:8 As the bad figs, which can’t be eaten, they are so bad, surely thus says YaHuWaH, So shall I give up TsidqiYahuw the sovereign of Yahuwdah, and his princes, and the residue of Yahrushalom, who remain in this Land, and those who dwell in the land of Mitsrayim,


In the land of Mitsrayim: i.e., those who tried to avoid surrendering to Babel by running to a stronger nation further away from them. But Yahuwah hunted them down as well. No place is safe if His hand is set against you.


24:9 I shall even give them up to be tossed back and forth among all the kingdoms of the earth for evil; to be a reproach and a byword, a gibe [Jew] and a curse, in all places where I shall drive them. 24:10 I shall send the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, among them, until they be consumed from off the Land that I gave to them and to their fathers.


The fruitless tares are gathered together just like the wheat—but burned. (Mat. 13:29) The evil of the world will also be united (like Ysra'al) before the end-time destruction comes upon it. But there were many who were neither blessed nor cursed as these two groups were. These coincide with the three books opened during the Days of Awe—that of the righteous, who are sealed for redemption; that of the wholly wicked, who are not granted repentance; and that of sinners, the common, lukewarm people in the middle, who have not made their decision and do not even receive Yahuwah’s attention. They are left in the land without protection, without wisdom, and without rulers to guide them. They are open prey for whatever comes along. He concentrates on His enemies and those who love Him, yet those in between were Ysra'al (Yahuwdah) too—yet He “never knew them”. We need to take warning form this.



25:1 The word that came to YirmeYahuw concerning all the people of Yahuwdah, in the fourth year of Yahuwyaqim the son of YoshiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah (the same was the first year of Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel), 25:2 which YirmeYahuw the prophet spoke to all the people of Yahuwdah, and to all the inhabitants of Yahrushalom, saying: 25:3 From the thirteenth year of YoshiYahuw the son of Amown, sovereign of Yahuwdah, even to this day, these twenty-three years, the Word of YaHuWaH has come to me, warning you in advance daily, but you have not listened. 25:4 YaHuWaH has sent to you all his servants the prophets, sending them in advance to warn you (but you have not listened, nor inclined your ear to hear)  25:5 saying, Return now everyone from his evil way, and from the evil of your doings, and remain on the ground that YaHuWaH has given to you and to your fathers, from of old and even forevermore;


Remain on the ground: not just a promise, but a command. Being dedicated to the inheritance of Ya'aqob is part of Ysra'al’s obedience to Yahuwah. We are meant to be established in it, let it be what we are about, not just live in it. How many who live in the Land today have this attitude?


 25:6 and don’t go after other mighty ones to serve them or worship them, and don’t provoke Me to anger with the work of your hands; and I shall do you no harm. 25:7 Yet you have not listened to Me, says YaHuWaH; that you may provoke Me to anger with the work of your hands to your own hurt. 


25:8 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies: Because you have not heeded My Words, 25:9 behold, I shall send and take all the families of the north, says YaHuWaH, and I shall send to Nebuwkadne'tstsar the sovereign of Babel, My servant, and shall bring them against this land, and against its inhabitants, and against all these nations around; and I shall utterly destroy them, and make them an astonishment, and a hissing, and perpetual desolations. 25:10 Moreover I shall take from them the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the lamp.[Rev. 18] 25:11 This whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the sovereign of Babel seventy years. 25:12 It shall happen, when seventy years are accomplished, that I shall punish the sovereign of Babel, and that nation, says YaHuWaH, for their iniquity, and the land of the Kasdiy; and I shall make it desolate forever.


Daniel took this quite literally, and when he saw that the set time was approaching, he began to take steps to prepare for the restoration of the Ysra'alite heart so that the Land could be resettled. (Daniel 9:2) The very same task is before us today, as our exile is also calculated to be over after not seventy but 2,730 years of not being a people. It would not “just happen” automatically or magically, nor will it this time either. We have to turn our hearts toward bringing it about while again asking Yahuwah to do His part as He promised.[2 Chronicles 36:21 explains that these 70 years were overdue to YaHuWaH because for 490 years no one had let the land rest on the seventh year as YaHuWaH had commanded. The only cause for this could be lack of trust, which in itself is idolatry. 490 years prior to this extended to the time the monarchy began, or a few years prior to it. This means that none of the kings of Yahuwdah or the united kingdom had ever enforced this law!  2 Chron. 36:21 "to fulfill the word of YaHuWaH by the mouth of YirmeYahuw, until the land had enjoyed its Sabbaths: for as long as it lay desolate it kept Sabbath, to fulfill seventy years."]


 25:13 I shall bring on that land all My Words which I have pronounced against it, even all that is written in this book, which YirmeYahuw has prophesied against all the nations. 25:14 For many nations and great sovereigns shall make bondservants of them, even of them; and I shall recompense them according to their deeds, and according to the work of their hands.  


25:15 For thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, to me: take this cup of the wine of wrath at My Hand [YaHuWSHuWaH - the one who will bring YaHuWaH’s wrath upon men. Rev. 19:11-16], and cause all the nations, to whom I send you, to drink it. 25:16 They shall drink, and reel back and forth, and act like madmen, because of the sword [symbol of war] that I shall send among them [to divide them].  25:17 Then took I the cup at YaHuWaH’s hand, and made all the nations to drink, to whom YaHuWaH had sent me: 25:18 to wit, Yahrushalom, and the cities of Yahuwdah, and its sovereigns, and its princes, to make them a desolation, an astonishment, a hissing, and a curse, as it is this day; 25:19 Par'oh sovereign of Mitsrayim, and his servants, and his princes, and all his people; 25:20 and all the mixed people, and all the sovereigns of the land of the Uwts, and all the sovereigns of the Pelishtiym, (namely, Ashqelown, and Azzah, and Eqrown, and the remnant of Ashdowd); 


Mixed peoples: Aramaic, auxiliaries. Utz means “wooded”. The meaning of the name Philistines is “immigrants”. Ashqelon means “the fire of infamy”, Gaza, “strong”, Eqron, “emigration” or “torn up by the roots”, and Ashdod, “powerful”.


25:21 Edom, and Mow'ab, and the sons of Ammown [modern day Jordan]; 25:22 and all the sovereigns of Tsor, and all the sovereigns of Tsiydown, and the sovereigns of the coastlands which is across the sea; 


Tsor and Tsidon: meaning “a rock” and “hunting”, these are in present-day Lebanon.


25:23 Dedan, and Teyma, and Buwz, and all who are in the farthest corners;


D’dan means “low country”, Theyma, “desert”, and Buz, “contempt”


25:24 and all the sovereigns of Arab, and all the sovereigns of the mixed people who dwell in the wilderness; 25:25 and all the sovereigns of Zimriy, and all the sovereigns of Eylam, and all the sovereigns of the Mayday; 


Zimri means “my music”. Eylam means “eternal”, and Madai, “the middle land”. All these nations were punished because of tiny Ysra'al! Only the presence of the righteous remnant (until the time they were called back to the Land) kept Yahuwah’s judgment back from Babel:


25:26 and all the sovereigns of the north, far and near, one with another; and all the kingdoms of the world, which are on the face of the earth/Land: and the sovereign of Sheshach [Babel] shall drink after them. 


Earth… Land: the same word in Hebrew, but probably referring to the time when all the kings of the earth gather against Yahrushalom (Zech. 12:2; Rev. 16:14) Sheshakh: a code name for Babel through a form of Hebrew encryption called “atbash”, in which one letter is substituted for another by replacing letters of the normal alphabet with the equivalent order of letters when reversed (Missler), i.e., like substituting Y-Y-O for B-B-L in English. Varying orders of the Hebrew alphabet for ciphering purposes have been found dating all the way back to the earliest known forms of writing it.


25:27 You shall tell them, Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Drink, and be drunk, vomit [be confused], fall, and rise no more, because of the sword which I shall send among you. 25:28 It shall be, if they refuse to take the cup at your hand to drink, then you shall tell them, Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies: You shall surely drink. 25:29 For, behold, I begin to work evil at the city which is called by My Name; and should you be utterly unpunished? You shall not be unpunished; for I shall call for a sword on all the inhabitants of the earth/Land, says YaHuWaH Master of Armies. [2nd seal] 


25:30 Therefore prophesy you against them all these words, and tell them, YaHuWaH shall roar from on high, and issue forth His Voice from His set-apart habitation; He shall mightily roar against His fold; He shall give a shout, as those who tread the grapes, against all the inhabitants of the Land/earth.


Issue forth His voice: Aramaic, lift up His Memra (living Word). Roar powerfully: Aram., summon, so that plunderers will come.


 25:31 A noise [uproar] shall come even to the end of the earth; for YaHuWaH has a controversy with the heathen; He shall enter into judgment with all flesh: as for the wicked, He shall give them to the sword, says YaHuWaH. 25:32 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, Behold, disaster shall go forth from nation to nation, and a great storm-wind shall be raised up from the farthest parts (coasts) of the earth. 25:33 The slain of YaHuWaH shall be at that Day from one end of the earth even to the other end of the earth: they shall not be lamented, neither gathered, nor buried; they shall be dung on the surface of the ground.


 Rev. 6:3 When He opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature saying, “Come!”  6:4 Another came forth, a red horse. And it was given to the one who sat take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another. There was given to him a great sword [symbol of war].


 25:34 Wail, you shepherds, and cry; and wallow in ashes, you leaders of the flock; for the days of your slaughter and of your dispersions are fully come, and you shall be thrown down like a goodly/coveted article. 


Chiefs: most majestic, principal ones, nobles; LXX, the choice rams. They bear the brunt of the punishment because they are the ones responsible for dissuading all of Ysra'al from disobeying the covenant and taking on the ways of the nations. Coveted: includes the sense of being beautiful, costly, precious, and desirable, bringing great pleasure.


25:35 The shepherds shall have no way to flee, nor the leaders of the flock to escape.


Since the Latin word pastor means “shepherd”, any prophecy about shepherds should be heeded by those who go by that title today.


25:36 The sound of the outcry of the shepherds and the howling of the chiefs of the flocks is heard, for YaHuWaH lays waste their pasture. 25:37 The peaceable folds are brought to silence because of the fierce anger of YaHuWaH. 25:38 He has left His covert, as the lion; for their Land is become an astonishment because of the fierceness of the oppressing sword, and because of His fierce anger.


26:1 In the beginning of the reign of Yahuwyaqim the son of YoshiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah, came this Word from YaHuWaH, saying, 26:2 Thus says YaHuWaH: Stand in the trumpeting- court of YaHuWaH’s House, and speak to all the cities of Yahuwdah, which come to worship in YaHuWaH’s House, all the words that I command you to speak to them; do not diminish a word. 26:3 It may be they shall listen, and turn every man from his evil way; that I may repent of the trouble which I purpose to do to them because of the evil of their doings.


Trouble: or simply, evil; the same word as “wickedness” in the next phrase. Yahuwah has a face-off with Yahuwdah, saying, “Put down your gun, and I’ll put down mine.” What we sow, we reap. If we feed into Him, He feeds the same back to us in a magnified way. (“Those who honor Me, I will honor.” 1 Shmuel 2:30)


 26:4 You shall tell them, Thus says YaHuWaH: If you shall not listen to Me, to walk in My Torah [instruction], which I have set before you, 26:5 to listen to the Words of My servants the prophets, whom I send to you, even rising up early and sending them, but you have not listened; 26:6 then shall I make this House like Shiyloh, and shall make this city a curse to all the nations of the earth. 


Like Shiloh: where the ark of the Covenant no longer rested, and the Tabernacle no longer sat, making the town of little importance anymore. (e.g., I Shmuel 4:4) Two sons of the high priest were killed there by Yahuwah, and the authority departed (4:21), so “like Shiloh” would have an especially ominous meaning to this “household” of priests.


 26:7 The priests and the prophets and all the people heard YirmeYahuw speaking these words in the House of YaHuWaH. It happened, when YirmeYahuw had made an end of speaking all that YaHuWaH had commanded him to speak to all the people, that the priests and the false prophets and all the people laid hold on him, saying, You shall surely die. 26:9 Why have you prophesied in the Name of YaHuWaH, saying, This House shall be like Shiyloh, and this city shall be desolate, without inhabitant? All the people were gathered to YirmeYahuw in the House of YaHuWaH.


Note that they changed his words to an interpretation, albeit a correct one.


26:10 When the princes of Yahuwdah heard these things, they came up from the king’s house to the House of YaHuWaH; and they sat in the entry of the new gate of YaHuWaH’s House. 26:11 Then spoke the priests and the false prophets to the princes and to all the people, saying, This man is worthy of death; for he has prophesied against this city, as you have heard with your ears. 


This sounds very much like what happened to YaHuWSHuWaH, and He called Yahrushalom the place that “killed the prophets”.


26:12 Then spoke YirmeYahuw to all the princes and to all the people, saying, YaHuWaH sent me to prophesy against this House and against this city all the words that you have heard. 26:13 Now therefore amend your ways and your doings, and obey the Voice of YaHuWaH your Aluahiym; and YaHuWaH shall repent of the evil that He has pronounced against you. 26:14 But as for me, behold, I am in your hand: do with me as is good and right in your eyes.  26:15 Only know for certain that, if you put me to death, you shall bring innocent blood on yourselves, and on this city, and on its inhabitants; for of a truth YaHuWaH has sent me to you to speak all these words in your ears.


26:16 Then said the princes and all the people to the priests and to the prophets: This man is not worthy of death; for he has spoken to us in the Name of YaHuWaH our Aluahiym. 26:17 Then rose up certain of the elders of the land, and spoke to all the assembly of the people, saying,  26:18 MiykahYahuw the Morashtiy prophesied in the days of ChizqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah; and he spoke to all the people of Yahuwdah, saying, Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies: Tsiyown shall be plowed as a field, and Yahrushalom shall become heaps, and the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest.


Mikhayahuw: the same as Micha. Moresheth: Aramaic, Mar’shah, one of the defense cities for Yahrushalom which stood along the Sh’felah (piedmont) a few miles inland from the coast. This passage is from Micha 3:12, dating from 730 B.C.E. This original Tzion should not be confused with the western mount in the city that is now called Mt. Tzion; that was misnamed due to an error in identification of David's tomb. In 1977 Arthur C. Custance wrote that what had once been David's stronghold was still gently sloping farmland. (It has since become an Arab slum.) This leveling was begun when the Maccabees, wanting to be sure that the cumulatively-raised level of the City of David did not encroach on the defensibility of the Temple Mount, worked night and day for three years between 141 and 135 B.C.E. to remove the ancient Citadel of David, lowering the City of David until it stood below the level of the Temple! (Josephus, Antiquities xiii., 7:7) Though resettled, this area was left outside the city wall the Roman Emperor Hadrianus built on the site of Yahrushalom after the two Jewish revolts, and time completed the process of bringing the original city of David to ruins. Pagan worship-sites: the Romans built a temple to Jupiter on the precise site of the Holy of Holies, then the Christians built churches with icons in them within the Temple precincts. Now the Muslim Dome of the Rock, dedicated to what was originally the moon-god of southern Arabia, stands on the site until the time comes for the House of Yahuwah to be rebuilt there.


 26:19 Did ChizqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah and all Yahuwdah put him to death? Didn’t he fear YaHuWaH, and entreat the favor of YaHuWaH, and YaHuWaH relented of the disaster which He had pronounced against them? Thus should we commit great evil against our own beings. 26:20 There was also a man who prophesied in the name of YaHuWaH, UwriYahuw the son of Shema'Yahuw of Qiryath Ye'ariym; and he prophesied against this city and against this Land according to all the words of YirmeYahuw:  26:21 and when Yahuwyaqim the sovereign, with all his mighty men, and all the princes, heard his words, the sovereign sought to put him to death; but when UwriYahuw heard it, he was afraid, and fled, and went into Mitsrayim:


Since this event took place “at the beginning of Yehoyaqim’s reign” (v. 1), the UriYahuw affair must have occurred only a short time prior to this.


 26:22 and Yahuwyaqim the sovereign sent men into Mitsrayim, namely, Elnathan the son of Akbowr, and certain men with him, into Mitsrayim;


Elnathan was Yahuyaqim’s father-in-law. (2 Kings 24:8) Pharaoh-Nekho was the one who had installed Yehoyaqim in place of his brother Yahuakhaz (2 Kings 23:31-35), so this would have been a simple move diplomatically. Akhbor means “mouse”.


 26:23 and they fetched forth UwriYahuw out of Mitsrayim, and brought him to Yahuwyaqim the sovereign, who killed him with the sword, and cast his dead body into the graves of the common people.


Graves of the sons of the people: i.e., common, unmarked graves. The treatment of this man is the opposite of the behavior these men brought forth as their precedent. (Compare 2 Chron. 10:8) Yet Yahuwah distinguishes and honors him with this parenthetical account. The Aramaic targum has “graves of the exiles”.


26:24 But the hand of Achiyqam the son of Shaphan was with YirmeYahuw, that they should not give him into the hand of the people to put him to death.


Achiyqam (whose name means “my brother has risen”) was the son of the scribe who had read the Torah to YoshiYahuw when he was repairing the Temple. (2 Chron. 34:18-20) His son Gedalyah was the one whom the king of Babel would appoint to rule those he left behind in Yahuwdah after the siege. (2 Kings 25:22) His tragic murder by another Jew is still remembered to this day by a special fast that falls during the Counting of the Omer.



27:1 In the beginning of the reign of Yahuwyaqim the son of YoshiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah, came this Word to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH, saying, 27:2 Thus says YaHuWaH to me: Make bonds and bars, and put them on your neck; 27:3 and send them to the sovereign of Edom, and to the sovereign of Mow'ab, and to the sovereign of the children of Ammown, and to the sovereign of Tsor, and to the sovereign of Tsiydown, by the hand of the messengers who come to Yahrushalom to TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah; 27:4 and give them a command to their Sovereigns, saying, Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, You shall tell your Sovereigns: 27:5 I Myself [My Memra /Living Word] have made the earth, the men and the animals that are on the surface of the earth, by My great Power and by My outstretched Arm; and I give it to whom it seems right to Me. 27:6 Now have I given all these lands into the hand of Nebuwkadne'tstsar the sovereign of Babel, My servant; and the animals of the field also have I given him to serve him. 27:7 All the nations shall serve him, and his son, and his son’s son, until the time of his own land comes, and his own time as well: and then many nations and great sovereigns shall make him their bondservant. 27:8 It shall happen, that the nation and the reign which shall not serve the same Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel, and that shall not put their neck under the yoke of the sovereign of Babel, that nation shall I punish, says YaHuWaH, with the sword, and with the famine, and with the pestilence, until I have consumed them by his hand. 27:9 But as for you, don’t you listen to your false prophets, nor to your diviners, nor to your dreams, nor to your soothsayers, nor to your sorcerers, who speak to you, saying, You shall not serve the sovereign of Babel: 27:10 for they prophesy a lie to you, to remove you far from your land, and that I should drive you out, and you should perish. 27:11 But the nation that shall bring their neck under the yoke of the sovereign of Babel, and serve him, that nation shall I let remain in their own land, says YaHuWaH; and they shall till it, and dwell therein. 


Yahuwdah did not have this promise, because more was expected of it, and its king and princes had already chosen punishment for the whole nation; however, there was still mercy for those who surrendered:


27:12 I spoke the same kind of words to TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah, saying, Bring your necks under the yoke of the sovereign of Babel, and serve him and his people, and live.  27:13 Why shall you die, you and your people, by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence, as YaHuWaH has spoken concerning the nation that shall not serve the sovereign of Babel? 27:14 Don’t listen to the words of the false prophets who speak to you, saying, You shall not serve the sovereign of Babel; for they prophesy a lie to you. 27:15 For I have not sent them, says YaHuWaH, but they prophesy falsely in My Name; that I may drive you out, and that you may perish, you, and the false prophets who prophesy to you.  27:16 Also I spoke to the priests and to all this people, saying, Thus says YaHuWaH: Don’t listen to the words of your false prophets who prophesy to you, saying, Behold, the vessels of YaHuWaH’s House shall now shortly be brought again from Babel; for they prophesy a lie to you. 27:17 Don’t listen to them; serve the sovereign of Babel, and live: why should this city become a desolation? 


This was the last thing Yahuwah wanted. Yet for a limited time, the way for the set-apart nation to survive was to leave its Land, though He had indicated that He never wanted them to leave it. (25:5) There will be another time when another “king of Babel” besieges the city, and YaHuWSHuWaH said those who were to survive would have to temporarily leave Yahuwdah to do so. (Mat. 24:16)


 27:18 But if they be prophets, and if the Word of YaHuWaH be with them, let them now make intercession to YaHuWaH Master of Armies, that the vessels which are left in the House of YaHuWaH, and in the house of the sovereign of Yahuwdah, and at Yahrushalom, don’t go to Babel. 27:19 For thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies concerning the pillars, and concerning the sea, and concerning the bases, and concerning the residue of the vessels that are left in this city,


Sea: i.e., the huge washing-basin, or laver, that (according to 1 Kings 7:38) held 40 baths (360 gallons, or, according to rabbinic writings, half as much). Also called a sea in 2 Kings 25:13, it was a copy of the “sea” before the heavenly throne. (Rev. 4:6; 15:2) All of these things were made of bronze, which symbolizes the need for sin to be dealt with before we can approach Yahuwah. This may be the message He intended to convey by having only these leftover items mentioned. Perhaps it also symbolized that it was generally the less noble of the people who were left in the Land.


27:20 which Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel didn’t take, when he carried away captive YekonYahuw the son of Yahuwyaqim, sovereign of Yahuwdah, from Yahrushalom to Babel, and all the nobles of Yahuwdah and Yahrushalom; 27:21 yes, thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, concerning the vessels that are left in the House of YaHuWaH, and in the house of the sovereign of Yahuwdah, and at Yahrushalom: 27:22 They shall be carried to Babel, and there shall they be, until the day that I call for them, says YaHuWaH; then shall I bring them up, and restore them to this place.


The day I call for them: or visit them; Aramaic, the day their memorial comes up before Me. He still planned to have them taken away, and they would be profaned (Dan. 5:2), just as His kodesh people were, but He asked them to pray that they would not be damaged beyond reusability. In the deepest sense, we as Ysra'al are His vessels that are now being brought back out of Babel.



28:1 It happened the same year, in the beginning of the reign of TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah, in the fourth year, in the fifth month, that ChananYahuw the son of Azzuwr, the false prophet, who was of Gib'own, spoke to me in the House of YaHuWaH, in the presence of the priests and of all the people, saying, 28:2 Thus speaks YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, saying, I have broken the yoke of the sovereign of Babel.  28:3 Within two full years shall I bring again into this place all the vessels of YaHuWaH’s House that Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel took away from this place, and carried to Babel: 28:4 and I shall bring again to this place YekonYahuw the son of Yahuwyaqim, sovereign of Yahuwdah, with all the captives of Yahuwdah, who went to Babel, says YaHuWaH; for I shall break the yoke of the sovereign of Babel. 28:5 Then the prophet YirmeYahuw said to the false prophet ChananYahuw in the presence of the priests, and in the presence of all the people who stood in the House of YaHuWaH,


People who were standing: perhaps the “standing men”, priests who rotated their duty in the Temple according to the order set up by David. (1 Chron. 24) The more familiar Greek form of Chananyah is Ananias. It was also the name of one of Daniel’s three companions who was delivered from the furnace.


28:6 even the prophet YirmeYahuw said, Amein: YaHuWaH do so; YaHuWaH perform your words which you have prophesied, to bring again the vessels of YaHuWaH’s House, and all them of the captivity, from Babel to this place. 28:7 Nevertheless hear you now this word that I speak in your ears, and in the ears of all the people: 28:8 The prophets who have been before me and before you of old prophesied against many countries, and against great kingdoms, of war, and of evil, and of pestilence. 28:9 The prophet who prophesies of peace, when the word of the prophet shall happen, then shall the prophet be known, that YaHuWaH has truly sent him.

 28:10 Then ChananYahuw the false prophet took the bar from off the prophet YirmeYahuw’s neck, and broke it. 28:11 ChananYahuw spoke in the presence of all the people, saying, Thus says YaHuWaH: Even so shall I break the yoke of Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel within two full years from off the neck of all the nations. The prophet YirmeYahuw went his way. 


Until his last phrase, the prophet was speaking the truth. However, he interjected his own wishes at the end. We will see how seriously Yahuwah took this addition to His words. It is a fearful privilege to be His spokesman; it is crucial to know when to stop speaking.


28:12 Then the Word of YaHuWaH came to YirmeYahuw, after that ChananYahuw the false prophet had broken the bar from off the neck of the prophet YirmeYahuw, saying,  28:13 Go, and tell ChananYahuw, saying, Thus says YaHuWaH: You have broken the bars of wood; but you have made in their place bars of iron.  28:14 For thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: I have put a yoke of iron on the neck of all these nations, that they may serve Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel; and they shall serve him: and I have given him the animals of the field also.  28:15 Then said the prophet YirmeYahuw to ChananYahuw the false prophet, Hear now, ChananYahuw: YaHuWaH has not sent you; but you make this people to have confidence in a lie. 


Confidence in a lie: We have often done the same, whether it be the assumption that Yahuwah has to pardon us even if we are not repentant, or that we will be spared persecution or will necessarily prosper financially if we have faith. But those who lead others to have such false confidence are held more accountable.


28:16 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH, Behold, I shall send you away from off the surface of the earth: this year you shall die, because you have spoken rebellion against YaHuWaH. 28:17 So ChananYahuw the false prophet died the same year in the seventh month. [most likely on the Day of Atonement - seventh month, tenth day!]


29:1 Now these are the words of the letter that YirmeYahuw the prophet sent from Yahrushalom to the residue of the elders of the captivity, and to the priests, and to the prophets, and to all the people, whom Nebuwkadne'tstsar had carried away captive from Yahrushalom to Babel, 29:2 (after that YekonYahuw the sovereign, and the queen mother, and the eunuchs, and the princes of Yahuwdah and Yahrushalom, and the craftsmen, and the smiths, were departed from Yahrushalom), 29:3 by the hand of El'asah the son of Shaphan, and GemarYahuw the son of ChilqiYahuw, (whom TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah sent to Babel to Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel), saying,


El’asah means “Aluahiym has done [it]”. Chilqiyah: perhaps another name for YirmeYahuw’s own father.


 29:4 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, to all the captivity, whom I have caused to be carried away captive from Yahrushalom to Babel: 29:5 Build houses, and dwell in them; and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them.


Eat their fruit: If this was the fruit of trees, they would have to wait five years (Lev. 19:25)—not the “less than two years” that Chananyah had predicted.


 29:6 Take wives, and father sons and daughters; and take wives for your sons, and give your daughters to husbands, that they may bear sons and daughters; and multiply there, and don’t be diminished. 29:7 Seek the peace of the city where I have caused you to be carried away captive, and pray to YaHuWaH for it; for in its peace you shall have peace. 


Seek: from a root meaning to plow up; i.e., take whatever steps are necessary to that end. The Jews who surrendered and went into Babel were treated well, having freedom of religion much like that found in the free world today. Many even forgot that they were not at home, much like many Jews today. But the Holocaust showed that their hosts would never regard them as truly assimilated, nor does Yahuwah want us to. It is allowable for a master to loan out his servants to another, but they do not therefore belong to that other forever. Our exile was His will, but now He intends for us to be remembering who we are and taking steps to bring it to an end.


29:8 For thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Don’t let your prophets who are in the midst of you, and your diviners, deceive you; neither listen to your dreams which you cause to be dreamed. 29:9 For they prophesy falsely to you in My Name: I have not sent them, says YaHuWaH. 29:10  For thus says YaHuWaH, After seventy years are accomplished for Babel, I shall visit you, and perform My good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place. 29:11 For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, says YaHuWaH, thoughts of shalom, and not of evil, to give you what you long for and expect in the end. 29:12 You shall call on Me, and you shall go and pray to Me, and I shall listen to you.


Pray: plead for our exile to end again, just as Daniel and Nehemyah did. Like them, we should recall that we are not worthy, yet appeal to His promises to our ancestors. When the Ysra'alites in Mitsrayim finally cried out to Him, He listened and responded.


29:13  You will search for Me [with intense longing] and acquire [what you seek], because you will follow Me with your whole heart!

29:14 I shall be found by you, says YaHuWaH, and I shall turn again your captivity, and I shall gather you from all the nations, and from all the places where I have driven you, says YaHuWaH; and I shall bring you again to the place from where I caused you to be carried away captive. 


 [All the places: This is speaking of a larger scenario than simply Yahuwdah going in to Babel; it refers to all the tribes that were exiled by Ashshuwr previously and thereafter scattered to every part of the world.]


 29:15 Because you have said, YaHuWaH has raised us up prophets in Babel; 29:16 thus says YaHuWaH concerning the sovereign who sits on the throne of Dawiyd, and concerning all the people who dwell in this city, your brothers who haven’t gone forth with you into captivity; 29:17 thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies; Behold, I shall send on them the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, and shall make them like disgusting figs, that can’t be eaten, they are so bad. 


Disgusting: from a word meaning “split open” (thus, spilling their contents and harboring pests attracted by their decay).


29:18 I shall pursue after them with the sword, with the famine, and with the pestilence, and shall deliver them to be tossed back and forth among all the kingdoms of the earth, to be an object of horror, and an astonishment, and a hissing, and a reproach, among all the nations where I have driven them; 29:19 because they have not listened to My Words, says YaHuWaH, with which I sent to them by My servants the prophets, rising up early and sending them; but you would not hear, says YaHuWaH.  Hear therefore the Word of YaHuWaH, all you of the captivity, whom I have sent away from Yahrushalom to Babel. 29:21 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, concerning Ach'ab the son of QowlaYahuw, and concerning TsidqiYahuw the son of Ma'aseYahuw, who prophesy a lie to you in My Name: Behold, I shall deliver them into the hand of Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel; and he shall kill them before your eyes; 29:22 and of them shall be taken up a curse (Allah) by all the captives of Yahuwdah who are in Babel, saying, YaHuWaH make you like TsidqiYahuw and like Ach'ab, whom the sovereign of Babel roasted in the fire! 29:23 because they have worked folly in Ysra'al, and have committed adultery with their neighbors’ wives, and have spoken words in My Name falsely, which I didn’t command them; and I AM HE Who knows, and bears witness, says YaHuWaH. 29:24 Concerning ShemaYahuw the Nechelamiy you shall speak, saying, 29:25 Thus speaks YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, saying, Because you have sent letters in your own name to all the people who are at Yahrushalom, and to TsephanYahuw the son of Ma'aseYahuw, the priest, and to all the priests, saying,  29:26 YaHuWaH has made you priest in the place of Yahuwyada the priest, that there may be officers in the House of YaHuWaH, for every man who is mad, and makes himself a prophet, that you should put him in the stocks and in shackles.


Makes himself a prophet: or, acts the part of a prophet. Stocks: or a narrow, vaulted prison that requires one’s body to be contorted somewhat to fit into it, or simply stiff from being unable to move while within it.


29:27 Now therefore, why have you not rebuked YirmeYahuw of Anathowth, who makes himself a prophet to you,


Makes himself your prophet: seemingly; it is a rhetorical question much like YaHuWSHuWaH’s: “If Yahuwchanan is sent by Yahuwah, why don’t you obey what he says?”


29:28 because he has sent to us in Babel, saying, The captivity is long: build houses, and dwell in them; and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them? 29:29 TsephanYahuw the priest read this letter in the ears of YirmeYahuw the prophet. 29:30 Then came the Word of YaHuWaH to YirmeYahuw, saying, 29:31 Send to all them of the captivity, saying, Thus says YaHuWaH concerning ShemaYahuw the Nechelamiy: Because ShemaYahuw has prophesied to you, and I didn’t send him, and he has caused you to trust in a lie;  29:32 therefore thus says YaHuWaH, Behold, I shall punish ShemaYahuw the Nechelamiy, and his seed; he shall not have a man to dwell among this people, neither shall he see the good that I shall do to My people, says YaHuWaH, because he has spoken rebellion against YaHuWaH.


Since he led others to defect, his punishment fit the crime: he was banished from returning.


(The whole of chapter 30 is for the "last days" as stated in verse 24)

30:1 The Word that came to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH, saying, 30:2 Thus speaks YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, saying, Write all the Words that I have spoken to you in a book.  30:3 For, behold, the days come, says YaHuWaH, that I shall turn again the captivity of My people Ysra'al and Yahuwdah, says YaHuWaH; and I shall cause them to return to the land that I gave to their fathers, and they shall possess it.


Here He overtly includes the Northern Kingdom which was exiled long before Yahuwdah. They will take possession: or dispossess; LXX, they will be its masters. Here he does become a prophet to the nations (1:5, 10), for these people are scattered among the nations, many having “become Gentiles”. (See note on v. 24.)


 30:4 These are the Words that YaHuWaH spoke concerning Ysra'al and concerning Yahuwdah. 30:5 For thus says YaHuWaH: We have heard a voice of trembling, of fear, and not of shalom. 30:6 Ask now, and can a man bear a child? Why do I see every man with his hands on his waist, as a woman in travail, and all faces are turned into paleness?  30:7 Alas! for That Day is great since there is none that compares with it: it is a time of dire straights for Ya'aqob; but he shall be delivered out of it. 


YashaYahuw 13:6 Wail; for The Day of YaHuWaH is at hand![Amos 5:18-20] It shall come as devastation from Shaddai Al. 13:7 Therefore all hands shall be feeble, and everyone’s heart shall melt. 

13:8 They shall be dismayed. Pangs and sorrows shall seize them. They shall be in pain like a woman in labor. They shall look in amazement one at another. Their faces shall be faces of flame. 

Sha'ul also uses this symbol in 1 Thessalonians 5:1-3:“Now, brothers, as to the times and the seasons, you do not need to be written to. 2 For you yourselves know very well that the day of Yahuwah comes as a thief in the night. 3 For when they say, “Peace and safety!” then suddenly destruction comes upon them, as labour pains upon a pregnant woman, and they shall not escape.” (see also YashaYahuw 66:6-24; YirmeYahuw 4:31; 13:20-27; Hoshea 13:12-16; Mikah 4:9-10.)

 [Dire straits: the feminine form of the word for narrow or tight spots or stress/distress. Thus it can refer to the birth canal, from which the child being born is then “delivered”.  Any woman who has given birth can testify that there is no pain that compares with it. So this is speaking of Ya'aqob’s being “born” back into the world again after presumably having become a thing of the past.] … Ya'aqob = both houses.

  ... and indeed His Body is being brought together while we are still in exile. Many antagonistic factors will cast doubt on the viable “birth” of the One New Man, the reunited Ysra'al, the Messianic Kingdom, but, Yahuwah will bring us to the point where only He can deliver us, for the darkest backdrop is the place where His ability shines most brightly, just as the new moon comes right after the darkest time. Pale: Aramaic, like jaundice.


30:8 It shall come to pass in that Day, says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, that I shall break his yoke from off your neck, and shall burst your bonds; and strangers shall no more make him their bondservant; 


Chastening-bands: Aramaic, chains. In the context of the false prophecies about when Yahuwdah would be delivered from Babel, Yahuwah appears to be saying it will not take place completely until the last days. This is because Yahuwdah carried many Babelian customs back with them (such as the practice of not voicing the name of their deity), and many remained there and became thoroughly intertwined with the system that Babel began and which continues to present-day assimilation. But this phrase is very similar to what Yitzhaq told Esau he would do to Ya'aqob: “You will serve your brother, yet when you brandish that sword, you will break his yoke from off your neck”. (Gen. 27:40) Since Esau is, by tradition, the ancestor of the Romans, Esau’s yoke has indeed been on the House of Ysra'al as well, having much the same effect as Babel’s, with its emphasis on material wealth. Esau had the same father as Ya'aqob; likewise the church uses the same Scriptures, yet majors on its minor points and all but ignores what Yahuwah spends the most time on. One Jewish tradition says Esau was the one who killed Nimrod (hence inheriting his crown; Nimrod was the founder of Babel.) YaHuWSHuWaH offered a better yoke—learning to know His Father as He did. (Mat. 11:28-30) This will rid us of foreign (Gentile) religious agendas and their concepts of what Yahuwah is like.


30:9 but they shall serve YaHuWaH their Aluahiym, and Dawiyd their sovereign, whom I shall raise up to them. 


Raise up: or resurrect. This is usually taken as a reference to the Mashiyach, David’s descendant. Nonetheless, for that reason He is, in a sense, David himself, bearing his genes, and thus keeping him alive. Yehezqel 34:23 says David would reign over both houses of Ysra'al as one shepherd for both. (cf. 37:24; Hos. 1:11)


30:10 Therefore do not be afraid, O Ya'aqob My servant, says YaHuWaH; neither be dismayed, Ysra'al: 

[Do not…: These are instructions for that time of Ya'aqob’s birthpangs.] for, behold, I shall save you from afar, and your seed from the land of their captivity; and Ya'aqob shall return, and shall be quiet and at ease, and none shall make him afraid. 30:11 For I am the One Who is with you [Yahuw-shua], says YaHuWaH, to save you: for I shall make a full end of all the nations where I have scattered you, but I shall not make a full end of you; but I shall correct you justly, and will not declare you innocent. 


I am the one who is with you: Aramaic, My Memra (living Word) is at your assistance to redeem you.


30:12 For thus says YaHuWaH, Your hurt is incurable, and your wound grievous. 30:13 There is none to plead your cause, that you may be bound up: you have no healing medicines. 30:14 All your lovers have forgotten you; they don’t seek you: for I have wounded you with the wound of an enemy, with the chastisement of a cruel one for the greatness of your iniquity, because your sins were increased. 30:15 Why do you cry for your hurt? Your pain is incurable: for the greatness of your iniquity, because your sins were increased I have done these things to you. 30:16 Nonetheless, all those who devour you shall be devoured; and all your adversaries, everyone of them, shall go into captivity; and those who despoil you shall be a spoil, and all who prey on you shall I give for a prey. 30:17 For I shall restore health to you, and I shall heal you of your wounds, says YaHuWaH; because they have called you an outcast, saying, "It is Tsiyown, whom no man seeks after."  

30:18 Thus says YaHuWaH: Behold, I shall turn again the captivity of Ya'aqob’s tents, and have compassion on his dwelling places; and the city shall be built on its own hill, and the palace shall be inhabited after its own manner.


Ya'aqob’s tents: symbolic of his descendants’ places or habits of study. Palace: or fortress, citadel. Duly proven: by reliable archaeology and historical documents from antiquity, not by guesswork, as many spurious sites for biblical events were “located” by Emperor Constantine’s mother.


 30:19 Out of them shall proceed thanksgiving and the voice of those who make merry: and I shall multiply them, and they shall not be few; I shall also esteem them, and they shall not be small.


Merrymakers: or those who make music; from the root word for Yitzhaq (laughter).


 30:20 Their descendants will be as they were in ancient times, and their congregation shall be established before Me; and I shall punish all who oppress them. 


[As they were: There are so many implications of this “return to the ancient path” (6:16). One aspect of this is seen in TsephanYahuw 3:9, which says YaHuWaH will restore His people to the use of a pure language (i.e., Hebrew, which for many centuries was relegated to the status of Latin today—used only for religious ceremonies).]


30:21-22 And his chief shall be from him, and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them; and I shall cause him to draw near, and he shall approach Me: for who is this who pledged his heart to approach Me? says YaHuWaH.  You shall be My people, and I shall be your Aluahiym. 30:23 Behold, the storm of YaHuWaH, even His wrath, is gone forth, a sweeping storm: it shall burst on the head of the wicked. 30:24 The fierce anger of YaHuWaH shall not return, until He has executed, and until He has performed the intentions of His heart. In the last days you shall understand it. Chp. 23:19-20 also


Made binding: or established, caused to stand. In the last days: This is why it was written down for the day when Yahuwah would bring the exiles back (v. 2-3). It was not meant for anyone in his day to understand it. But we now do understand this passage, so that time of return is quickly approaching.


 [30:25/31:1 At That Time, says YaHuWaH, I shall be the Aluahiym of all the families of Ysra'al, and they shall be My people.



31:2 Thus says YaHuWaH, The people who were left of the sword found favor in the wilderness; even Ysra'al, when I went to give him rest. 31:3 YaHuWaH appeared to me from afar, saying, Yes, I have loved you with an everlasting love: therefore with loving kindness have I drawn you. 31:4 Again shall I build you, and you shall be built, O Virgin of Ysra'al: again you shall be adorned with your tambourines, and shall go forth in the whirling dances of those who make merry.  31:5 Again you shall plant vineyards on the mountains of Shomerown; the planters shall plant, and shall enjoy its fruit.

 31:6 For there shall be a Day, that the watchmen (Natsarim/Nazarenes) shall cry on the hills of Ephrayim,  "Arise, and let us go up to Tsiyown to YaHuWaH our Aluahiym."


Watchmen: Aramaic, The righteous who have kept My law from of old… Their portion is the Land of Ysra'al, because they were longing for the years of consolations which are coming, saying, “When will we arise and go up to Tzion?” But YaHuWSHuWaH says the same blessing will be shared with those who came back to the Torah even in the eleventh hour because no one taught them the truth earlier, yet they were just as eager to work. (Mat. 20) These mountains of Efrayim are the same as the Mountains of Shomeron in v. 4. That they are again called this means that not only Yahuwdah, but the other tribes will also be back in the Land at this time.


 31:7 For thus says YaHuWaH, Sing with gladness for Ya'aqob, and shout for the chief of the nations: make it heard! Rave as if you were a madman, and say, "YaHuWaH, rescue Your people, the remnant of Ysra'al. "


 [YashaYahuw 27:12 It shall happen in That Day, that YaHuWaH shall thresh from the flowing stream of the River to the brook of Mitsrayim; and you shall be gathered one by one, children of Ysra'al. 27:13 It shall happen in That Day that a Great Shofar shall be blown (Day of Atonement); and those who were ready to perish in the land of Ashshuwr (Babel), and those who were outcasts in the land of Mitsrayim (churchanity), shall come; and they shall worship YaHuWaH in the qodesh mountain at Yahrushalom.]


 31:8 Here I am suddenly bringing them from the north country, and gathering them from the ends of the earth, and with them the blind and the lame, the woman with child and her who travails with child together - a great throng shall return here. 


Rev. 7:9 After these things I looked, and behold, a huge throng, which no one was able to count, out of every nation and of all tribes, peoples, and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed with long white robes, with palm branches in their hands. 7:10 They shout with a great sound, saying, “haYashuah leiAluheinu - the One, Who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb!” [the Deliverance belongs to Aluheinu and the Lamb".]

Bringing them: the Aramaic adds “suddenly”. Land of the north: or, hidden land. LXX, from the end of the earth to the Feast of the Passover, and the people will beget a great multitude. Blind and those who hobble: ruwachually, those who do not understand and fence-sitters who go back and forth between two ideologies (the same term used in 1 Kings 18:21). But why are they singled out here? Perhaps to reassure those who are literally blind and lame, since David will be ruling (30:9), and he said he hated such people (2 Shmuel 5:6-8) when they were used to mock him. Yahuwah would not let his hasty reaction curse the truly needy. YaHuWSHuWaH healed specifically the blind and the lame as a sign that He would one day complete the process. (Mat. 21:14) 


31:9 They shall come with weeping; and with prayers shall I bring them: I shall cause them to walk by rivers of waters, in a Straight Way in which they shall not stumble; for I am a Father to Ysra'al, and Ephrayim is My firstborn. 


 [Ephrayim is My firstborn: Aram., is beloved before Me; not only is he counted as Ya'aqob’s firstborn (Gen. 48:5; cf. 49:3), but as YaHuWaH’s own firstfruits.]


31:10 Hear the Word of YaHuWaH, you nations, and declare it in the islands afar off; and say, He Who scattered Ysra'al shall gather him, and keep him, as shepherd does his flock.  31:11 For YaHuWaH has ransomed Ya'aqob, and redeemed him from the hand of him who was stronger than he. (He Who is in you, is greater than he who is in the world - 1 Yahuw. 4:4) 31:12 They shall come and sing in the height of Tsiyown, and shall flow to the goodness of YaHuWaH, to the grain, and to the new wine, and to the oil, and to the young of the flock and of the herd: and their being shall be as a watered garden; and they shall not sorrow any more at all. 31:13 Then shall the virgin [assembly of Ysra'al] rejoice in the dance, and the young men and the old together; for I shall turn their mourning into joy, and shall comfort them, and make them rejoice from their sorrow. 31:14-15 I shall satiate the being of the priests with fatness, and My people shall be satisfied with My Goodness, says YaHuWaH.  Thus says YaHuWaH: A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation, and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her descendants [descendants/house of Yowseph]; she refuses to be comforted for her descendants [descendants/house of Yowseph/Ysra'al], because they are no more. ("none of them are here")


[Her descendants: the house of Yowseph, which left the covenant. The Aramaic targum confirms the interpretation that “none of them are here” refers to the House of Ysra'al (the ten tribes, often called Yowseph; see note on v. 19) being in exile.]


 31:16 Thus says YaHuWaH: Refrain your voice from weeping, and your eyes from tears; for your work shall be rewarded, says YaHuWaH; and they shall come again from the land of the enemy. 31:17 There is hope for your latter end, says YaHuWaH; and your children [descendants/Yowseph/Ysra'al] shall come again to their own border. 31:18 I have surely heard Ephrayim bemoaning himself thus, You have chastised me, and I was chastised, as a calf unaccustomed to the yoke: turn me, and I shall be turned; for you are YaHuWaH my Aluahiym. 31:19 For after my turning back, I repented. And after I was instructed, I struck on my thigh. I was ashamed, yes, even humiliated, for I bore the reproach of my youth.


[Since well before YaHuWSHuWaH’s birth, “The Prodigal Son” was the name of this haftarah (passage used to teach a part of the Torah when it was forbidden by Gentile rulers to teach Torah). Indeed, Ephrayim, Ya'aqob’s youngest son (actually his grandson, but adopted, along with his brother, into Yowseph’s place), went far away from YaHuWaH among the Gentiles and wasted his inheritance. In the first part of our return, we did think of ourselves as only spectators, glad to participate in practices we knew belonged to Yahuwdah. But then our Father revealed to us that we were actually part of the household of Ysra'al as well.]


 31:20-21 Is Ephrayim My dear son? Is he a darling child? For as often as I speak against him, I do earnestly remember him still: therefore My heart yearns for him; I shall surely have mercy on him, says YaHuWaH.  Set up road signs, make guideposts; set your heart toward the highway, even the way by which you went: turn again, Virgin of Ysra'al, turn again to these your cities.


 “For look, I am commanding, and I shall sift the house of Ysra'al (northern 10 tribes) among all the Gentiles, as one sifts with a sieve, yet not a grain falls to the ground.”  Amos 9:9

"Is not Ephraim my dear son, the child in whom I delight? Though I often speak against him, I still remember him. Therefore my heart yearns for him, declares YaHuWaH. SET UP ROAD SIGNS, PUT UP GUIDEPOSTS. Take note of the highway, the road that you take. RETURN, O Virgin Israel, return to your towns. How long will you WANDER, O unfaithful daughter?"  Vs. 20-21 above.

As the Israelites migrated through Europe, they fulfilled this prophecy, and left "ROAD SIGNS" and "GUIDEPOSTS" along the way, so that we can trace their route! The chief tribe to do this was Dan, because of their proclivity to leave the name of their ancestor "DAN" everywhere they went.

The tribe of Dan ruled the entire island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea.

In Hebrew there are no vowels, so the name Dan is written DN, or its Hebrew equivalent. Thus words like Dan, Din, Don, Dun, Den, or Dn, correspond to the name of Dan.      Just west of the Black Sea, ancient geographers designated a region by the name of Moesia, which means the land of the "Moses-ites." These people revered a person whom they called Zal-moxis. "Zal" significes "chief," so this person, "chief Moxis" or "leader Moxis" was actually "chief MOSES," the man of YaHuWaH Aluahiym who led Israel to the promised land, and whom these people remembered as their original leader. The tribe of Dan also passed through this region, and the surrounding territory, leaving its name in Mace-DON-ia, and the Dar-DAN-elles, and to the north by the river DAN-ube. In the territory of Sarmatia (or Samaria, meaning the Israelites), were located the rivers DN-iper, DN-ister, and the DON.  ScanDINavia derives is name from the more ancient term Scania, but because so many of the families of DAN lived there, the term was altered by Roman historians (Justin, Tacitus).

Denmark, the name of the modern country in Europe north of Germany, means, literally, "Dan's mark." It's people are called "Danes." In fact, because at one time Denmark ruled all the surrounding region, the whole region took its name from them the ScanDINavian peninsula.

The word “London”: Some have claimed that the Anglo-Saxons, assumed to be to some degree descendants of the Tribe of Dan, named their settlement lan-dan, meaning "abode of Dan" in Hebrew. The ancient name for the people of Ireland and Scotland is “Tuatha de Danaan”, meaning “tribe of Dan”. Keating's History of Ireland traces the Tuatha de Danaan (“Tribe of Dan") from Greece to Scandinavia ("Dansmark" and "Sve-DAN").


  31:22 How long shall you go here and there, you backsliding daughter? for YaHuWaH has created a new thing in the land: a woman encompasses a man[warrior]. 


Now in Hebrew weddings the bride encircles the groom seven times to “build a wall” around him. LXX, How long, O disgraced daughter, will you turn away? For Yahuwah has created safety for a new plantation; men will go about in safety. The Aramaic targum identifies the “new thing” He does as the House of Ysra'al pursuing the Torah. Backsliding: The House of Ysra'al could have gone back to the Land after the Assyrian empire ended, and some indeed did, but then left again. Perhaps we could take it even further and say that since the “daughter” is delaying too long, Yahuwah will actually let a man give birth, for the word for female here really means “pierced one” (as is the case in sexual terms) and YaHuWSHuWaH was indeed pierced. He will “surround” (bind) the strong man (Mark 3:27). But the encircling may be in terms of the birth canal (30:6), this time giving birth to a full-grown man, ready for war. ObadYahuw 1:18 and Yehezqel 37 show that the House of Ysra'al (Yoseyf) is to be a great army.


31:23 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, Yet again shall they use this speech in the land of Yahuwdah and in its cities, when I shall bring again their captivity: "YaHuWaH bless you, habitation of righteousness, Mountain of Set-apartness."


[YashaYahuw 26:1,2 “We have a strong city. Aluahiym appoints deliverance for walls and bulwarks. Open the gates, that the righteous nation that guards the Truth may enter.]


   31:24 Yahuwdah and all its cities shall dwell therein together, the farmers, and those who go about with flocks.  31:25 For I have satiated the weary being, and every sorrowful being have I replenished. 31:26 On this I awakened, and saw; and my sleep had been pleasant to me!   Pleasant: or, sweet. This may be an allusion also to the resurrection.


 31:27 Behold, the days come, says YaHuWaH, that I shall sow the House of Ysra'al and the House of Yahuwdah with the seed of man, and with the seed of animals. 31:28 It shall happen that, like as I have watched over them to pluck up and to break down and to overthrow and to destroy and to afflict, so shall I watch over them to build and to plant, says YaHuWaH. 31:29 In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge.


Set on edge: or dulled, made blunt (by the grinding). The Aramaic interprets this as the children being punished for their fathers’ sins. We will no longer be held accountable for what our ancestors did wrong. (We have been paying for what they did 2,730 years ago.) Yahuwah has mercy, but there is also now no room for excuses; we will also not get away with our own sins:


 31:30 But everyone shall die for his own iniquity: every man who eats the sour grapes, his own teeth shall be set on edge.  31:31 Behold, the Days come, says YaHuWaH, that I shall cut a new (renewed) covenant with the House of Ysra'al, and with the House of Yahuwdah: 31:32 not like the covenant that I cut with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Mitsrayim; which My covenant they broke/nullified [changed], although I was a Husband to them, says YaHuWaH. 


Not like: in that “they violated it” (broke it in two, split or cracked it—as Moshah did with the physical tablets on which Yahuwah had written it, in perfect symbolism of what they had done). The Aramaic interprets “violated” as “changed”—the very thing the Northern Kingdom, after being exiled and even after being introduced to YaHuWSHuWaH, tried to claim Yahuwah had done! In all other ways, a renewed covenant must be as much like the original as possible, with only minor adjustments to reflect a change that may have taken place in the situation of one party or the other since the first was made. Though I fulfilled…: LXX, and I disregarded them.


31:33  But this is the covenant that I shall cut with the House of Ysra'al after those days, says YaHuWaH: I shall put My instructions in their inward parts, and in their heart shall I write it; and I shall be their Aluahiym, and they shall be My people:


Or, I will put My Torah right in their midst [where they draw near]. This does not mean we will obey like robots; something comes to be written on our hearts by constant meditation on it and habitual rehearsing it in our minds until it becomes second nature. “Write” can mean “engrave with a chisel”—a painful process! But what is on our hearts is not easily forgotten (compare Ps. 119:11); it is certainly not something we can ignore and consider dead and gone! When YaHuWSHuWaH rules with a rod of iron (Ps. 2:9), there will be no option but to learn His Torah. (Zech. 14:18)


31:34 and they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know YaHuWaH; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says YaHuWaH: for I shall pardon their crookedness, and their sins shall I remember no more. (I, even I AM HE Who blots out your transgression for My Own sake and remembers your sins no more.)


 31:35 Thus says YaHuWaH, Who gives the sun for a light by day, and the moon and of the stars for a light by night, Who stirs up the sea, so that its waves roar; YaHuWaH Master of Armies is His Name: 


Who stirs up: alt., who gives rest to the sea when its waves roar (Aramaic, rebuking the sea, as He did through YaHuWSHuWaH, Mark 4:39), or, who divides the sea when its waves roar (as He did through Moshe, Ex. 14).


31:36 If these laws depart from before Me, says YaHuWaH, then the Seed of Ysra'al also shall cease from being a nation before Me forever.


Laws: set patterns, prescribed tasks and limits, enactments. Cease: recede, depart, be removed. Seed is a very physical thing just like these natural laws. Thus despite Ysra'al’s falling away as a recognizable nation, we cannot just ruwachualize it away and say someone else has replaced them! We must trust His promise and deduce that (most of) those who have accepted the Mashiyach’s kingship, from whatever part of the world they come, are actually (at least in part) Abraham, Yitzhaq, and Ya'aqob’s physical descendants as well.


31:37-38 Thus says YaHuWaH: If heavens above can be measured, and the 

foundations of the earth searched out beneath, then shall I also cast off all the seed of Ysra'al for all that they have done, says YaHuWaH.  Behold, the days come, says YaHuWaH, that the city shall be built to YaHuWaH from the tower of Chanan'el to the gate of the corner.


Gate of the corner: At the site of today's Jaffa Gate on the west side—a reparation of the part of the wall destroyed as part of our war between the Northern and Southern kingdoms. (2 Kings 14:13; compare Nehemyah 3; Zech. 14:10 as the rebuilding began.)


 31:39 The measuring line shall go out further straight onward to the hill Gareb, and shall turn about to Go'ah.  31:40 The whole valley of the dead bodies and of the ashes, and all the fields to the brook Qidrown, to the corner of the horse gate toward the east, shall be Set-apart to YaHuWaH; it shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down any more forever.


Valley of the Corpses: Aramaic adds, of the camp where the Assyrians fell. Corner Gate: Aram. Adds, the place of the king’s race-course. All of these sites are toward the north and west from the city that stood in YirmYahuw's day. Custance notes that at that time it seemed to be growing toward the south, while the Valley of Dead Bodies, etc., wouldn't have appeared a likely direction to expand. But from Roman times onward, 700 years later, it began growing toward the north. The building of the city from the tower of Chanan'el (northwest of the Temple) to the Corner Gate was completed by YaHuWSHuWaH's day. In modern days, the development has continued in exactly the order prophesied here, and the main business district is right in this area. Never again: “The city will be rebuilt as a permanent structure” is part of the liturgy welcoming the Sabbath, which foreshadows this Messianic Kingdom.



32:1 The Word that came to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH in the tenth year of TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah, which was the eighteenth year of Nebuwkadne'tstsar.  (YiremYahuw was at least  41 yrs. old - depending when he was first called as a child) 

32:2 Now at that time the sovereign of Babel’s army was besieging Yahrushalom; and YirmeYahuw the prophet was shut up in the court of the guard, which was in the sovereign of Yahuwdah’s house. 32:3 For TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah had shut him up, saying, Why do you prophesy, and say, Thus says YaHuWaH, "Here I am giving this city into the hand of the sovereign of Babel, and he shall take it; 32:4 and TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah shall not escape out of the hand of the Kasdiy, but shall surely be delivered into the hand of the sovereign of Babel, and shall speak with him mouth to mouth, and his eyes shall see his eyes; 32:5 and he shall bring TsidqiYahuw to Babel, and there shall he be until I visit him, says YaHuWaH: though you fight with the Kasdiy, you shall not prosper?"


32:6 YirmeYahuw said, The Word of YaHuWaH came to me, saying, 32:7 "Behold, Chanam'el the son of Shalluwm your uncle shall come to you, saying, Buy my field that is in Anathowth; for the right of redemption is yours to buy it."


Chanam’el means “Yahuwah has shown favor”, apparently being a variation on Chanan’el. Though Levites were not to have a regular inheritance in a particular region like other Ysra'alites, they were able to own a limited amount of land around the cities in which they were spread throughout the Land to serve all Ysra'al.


 32:8 So Chanam'el my uncle’s son came to me in the court of the guard according to the Word of YaHuWaH, and said to me, Please buy my field that is in Anathowth, which is in the land of Binyamin; for the right of inheritance is yours, and the redemption is yours; buy it for yourself. Then I knew that this was the Word of YaHuWaH.


The right…of redemption is yours: LXX, you are the elder. Then I knew: after it came to pass. Apparently he had some doubt as to whether he was truly hearing from Yahuwah, because it made no sense to buy property in a land that was about to be taken away by a foreign king! In this case, as with YaHuWSHuWaH, only someone in prison (YashaYahuw 53:8) was able to perform the duty of a kinsman-redeemer.


I bought the field that was in Anathowth of Chanam'el my uncle’s son, and weighed him the money, even seventeen shekels of silver. 32:10 I subscribed the deed, and sealed it, and called witnesses, and weighed him the money in the balances/scales. 32:11 So I took the deed of the purchase, both that which was sealed, containing the terms and conditions, and that which was open;  32:12 and I delivered the deed of the purchase to Baruwk the son of NeriYahuw, the son of MachseYahuw, in the presence of Chanam'el my uncle’s son, and in the presence of the witnesses who subscribed the deed of the purchase, before all the Yahuwdim who sat in the court of the guard.


Barukh means “blessed”. NeriYahuw means “lamp of Yahuwah”. MachaseYahuw means “Yahuwah is a refuge”, so his whole line’s names have positive meanings.


32:13 I commanded Baruwk before them, saying, 32:14 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Take these deeds, this deed of the purchase which is sealed, and this deed which is open, and put them in an earthen vessel; that they may continue many days. 


“We have this treasure in earthen vessels, so that the power may be far more from Aluahiym than from ourselves.” (2 Cor. 4:7  For we have this treasure in earthen vessels, so that the excellence of the power might be of Aluahiym, and not of us. ) This relates to verse 17 below. The treasure, in part, is shown here to be our title-deed to an inheritance in His Land! We are the vessels in which He has placed His words, written on our hearts.


32:15 For thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Houses and fields and vineyards shall yet again be bought in this land.


YirmeYahuw’s purchase was symbolic of this fact. Anathoth, the place he bought his field, means “answers to prayer”.


 32:16 Now after I had delivered the deed of the purchase to Baruwk the son of NeriYahuw, I prayed to YaHuWaH, saying, 32:17 Ah Master YaHuWaH! Behold, You have made the heavens and the earth by Your great Power and by Your outstretched Arm; there is nothing too hard for You, 32:18 You show loving kindness to thousands, and recompense the iniquity of the fathers into the bosom of their children after them; the Great, the Mighty Aluahiym, YaHuWaH Master of Armies is His Name; 32:19 great in counsel, and mighty in work; Whose eyes are open on all the ways of the sons of men, to give everyone according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings: 32:20 Who performed signs and wonders in the land of Mitsrayim, even to this day, both in Ysra'al and among other men; and made Yourself a Name, as it is this day; 32:21 and brought forth Your people Ysra'al out of the land of Mitsrayim with signs, and with wonders, and with a strong Hand, and with an outstretched Arm, and with great terror; 32:22 and gave them this land, which You swore to their fathers to give them, a land flowing with milk and honey; 32:23 and they came in, and possessed it, but they didn’t obey Your Voice, neither walked in Your Torah; they have done nothing of all that You commanded them to do: therefore You have caused all this evil to come on them.


Voice: demonstrated in the sound of the shofar heard at Mt. Sinai, signifying the need to wake up and faithfully guard the instructions He gave there, but they remained asleep even when they arrived in the Promised Land, and did not keep their marriage vows made at Sinai.


32:24 Look at the siege-mounds, they are come to the city to take it; and the city is given into the hand of the Kasdiy who fight against it, because of the sword, and of the famine, and of the pestilence; and what You have spoken has happened; and behold, I see it. 32:25 You have said to me, Master YaHuWaH, "Buy the field for money, and call witnesses; whereas the city is given into the hand of the Kasdiy."


 32:26 Then came the Word of YaHuWaH to YirmeYahuw, saying, 32:27 Behold, I AM YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of all flesh: is there anything too hard for Me? 32:28 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH: Behold, I shall give this city into the hand of the Kasdiy, and into the hand of Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel, and he shall take it: 32:29 and the Kasdiy, who fight against this city, shall come and set this city on fire, and burn it, with the houses, on whose roofs they have offered incense to Ba'al, and poured out drink offerings to other mighty ones, to provoke Me to anger. 32:30 For the children of Ysra'al and the children of Yahuwdah have done only that which was evil in My sight from their youth; for the children of Ysra'al have only provoked Me to anger with the work of their hands, says YaHuWaH.  For this city has been to Me a provocation of My anger and of My wrath from the day that they built it even to this day; that I should remove it from before My Face, 32:32 because of all the evil of the children of Ysra'al and of the children of Yahuwdah, which they have done to provoke Me to anger, they, their sovereigns, their princes, their priests, and their prophets, and the men of Yahuwdah, and the inhabitants of Yahrushalom.  32:33 They have turned to Me the back, and not the face: and though I taught them, rising up early and teaching them, yet they have not listened to receive instruction. 32:34 But they set their abominations in the House that was called by My Name, to defile it.


Was called: In this condition, He wants no association with it, yet He claims the right to better treatment there. Ysra'al is acting like the Greeks who brought a swine onto the Temple altar. The same happened once the Messianic community was co-opted by the institutional Church and much paganism was brought in.


32:35 They built the high places of Ba'al, which are in the valley of the Son of Hinnom, to cause their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire to Molech; which I didn’t command them, neither did it come into My mind, that they should do this abomination, to cause Yahuwdah to sin.


Molech means “the one who reigns”—the name of a pagan deity. The Valley of the Son of Hinnom is immediately south and west of Yahrushalom.


 32:36 Now therefore thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, concerning this city, about which you say, It is given into the hand of the sovereign of Babel by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence: 32:37 Behold, I shall gather them out of all the countries, where I have driven them in My anger, and in My wrath, and in great indignation; and I shall bring them again to this place, and I shall cause them to dwell safely: 32:38 and they shall be My people, and I shall be their Aluahiym: 32:39 and I shall give them one heart and one Way, that they may fear Me forever, for the good of them, and of their children after them:


Aramaic, one heart and one way to fear Me… We will no longer be each going in our own direction, trying to find His will as individuals, but will be carrying it out together as one unit.


32:40 and I shall cut an everlasting covenant with them, that I shall not turn away from following them, to do them good; and I shall put My fear in their hearts, that they may not depart from Me.  32:41 Yes, I shall rejoice over them to do them good, and I shall plant them in this land assuredly with  all of My  heart and with all of My being.     With all My heart: literally, in all [of] My heart.

 32:42 For thus says YaHuWaH: Like as I have brought all this great evil on this people, so shall I bring on them all the good that I have promised them. 32:43 Fields shall be bought in this land, about which you say, It is desolate, without man or animal; it is given into the hand of the Kasdiy. 32:44 Men shall buy fields for money, and subscribe the deeds, and seal them, and call witnesses, in the territory of Binyamin, and in the places about Yahrushalom, and in the cities of Yahuwdah, and in the cities of the hill country, and in the cities of the lowland, and in the cities of the south: for I shall cause their captivity to return, says YaHuWaH.


Territory of Binyamin: where part of the Temple complex stood, straddling the border with Yahuwdah’s. Sh’felah: the lowland—literally, the falling-off, the transition between the mountains and the coastal plain. Negev: the large desert in southern Ysra'al. Captives: Aramaic, exiles.



33:1 Moreover the Word of YaHuWaH came to YirmeYahuw the second time, while he was yet shut up in the court of the guard, saying, 33:2 Thus says YaHuWaH Who made it (the earth), Who formed it and established it; YaHuWaH is His Name: 33:3 Call out to Me, and I shall answer you, and shall show you great and unattainable things with which you are not familiar.  [Unattainable things: inaccessible, inscrutable mysteries that have been secreted away beyond our reach.]

 33:4 For thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, concerning the houses of this city, and concerning the houses of the sovereigns of Yahuwdah, which are broken down to make a defense against the mounds and against the sword; 33:5 while men come to fight with the Kasdiy, and to fill them with the dead bodies of men, whom I have killed in My anger and in My wrath, and for all whose wickedness I have hid My Face from this city: 


I.e., those who are trying to defend the city will be buried in the houses they are dismantling to make into a barricade against a battering ram. (Compare YaHuWSHuWaH 6:26; 2 Kings 23:14.) Hidden My face: Aramaic, taken up My Sh’kinah (dwelling presence).


33:6 Behold, I am bringing to it relief and healing, and I shall heal them; and I shall reveal to them abundance of shalom and truth. 33:7 I shall cause the captivity of Yahuwdah and the captivity of Ysra'al to return, and shall build them, as at the first.


The captives of Ysra'al (the northern kingdom) had already been gone from the Land for over a century, yet YirmeYahuw prophesies of their return as well. This has never yet taken place in its fullness. Indeed, some Orthodox Jews refuse to return to the Land until the Mashiyach brings the other tribes as well. But He began to do so 2,000 years ago, and this focus was lost by His followers until very recently.


 33:8 I shall cleanse them from all their iniquity, by which they have sinned against Me; and I shall pardon all their iniquities, by which they have sinned against Me, and by which they have transgressed against Me. 33:9 This city shall be to Me for a name of joy, for a praise and for a pride, before all the nations of the earth, which shall hear of all the prosperity that I Myself will do for them, and they will be in awe and quiver with excitement over all the prosperity and total well-being that I will bring about for her.  33:10 Thus says YaHuWaH: Yet again there shall be heard in this place, about which you say, It is waste, without man and without animal, even in the cities of Yahuwdah, and in the streets of Yahrushalom, that are desolate, without man and without inhabitant and without animal, 33:11 the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of those who say, "Give thanks to YaHuWaH Master of Armies, for YaHuWaH is good, for His loving kindness endures forever"; even of them who bring slaughterers of thanksgiving into the House of YaHuWaH. For I shall cause the captivity of the land to return as at the first, says YaHuWaH. 


Thank Yahuwah, because…: This is a quote from numerous psalms of David. Bring thanks: or thank-offerings. These are a specific type of offering brought to the Temple—a lamb voluntarily given as a token of one’s thanks for an extraordinary kindness Yahuwah has shown. It must be eaten within the Temple complex within two days, so it is shared with any who are willing to come hear the story of what Yahuwah has done. (Lev. 7:12; 22:29) Doing whatever remnant of this we can do without the Temple is an integral part of our return, and only our love for the Babelian system or wrongly-placed loyalties stand in the way.


 33:12  Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies: Yet again shall there be in this place, which is waste, without man and without animal, and in all its cities, a abode of shepherds causing their flocks to lie down. 


An abode of shepherds: usually an idiom for a depopulated place (Tyndale), but this time Yahrushalom will be “home” to those who truly concern themselves with bringing breadth to Yahuwah’s flocks in the present age.


33:13 In the cities of the hill country, in the cities of the lowland, and in the cities of the south, and in the territory of Binyamin, and in the places about Yahrushalom, and in the cities of Yahuwdah, shall the flocks again pass under the hands of him who numbers them, says YaHuWaH. 


Pass over the hand of the one who counts them: to make sure all were present when entering the fold, but also to determine what one’s tithe should be. (Lev. 27:32) interpreted in Aramaic as “eagerly pursue the words of the Mashiyach.”


33:14  Behold, the days come, says YaHuWaH, that I shall perform that good word which I have spoken concerning the House of Ysra'al and concerning the House of Yahuwdah. 33:15 In those Days, and at that Time, shall I cause a Branch (Zech. 6:12) of Righteousness to grow up to Dawiyd; and He shall execute justice and righteousness on the earth.


Branch: an offshoot from David, i.e., the Mashiyach. In the Land: or, on the earth.


 33:16 In those days shall Yahuwdah be liberated, and Yahrushalom shall dwell safely; and this is what they shall call her: YaHuWaH our Righteousness.


 (see also 23:5-6  Behold, the days come, says YaHuWaH, that I will raise to Dawiyd a righteous Branch, and He shall reign as sovereign and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land.  23:6 In His days Yahuwdah shall be saved, and Ysra'al shall dwell safely; and this is His Name by which He shall be called: YaHuWaH our Righteousness.)

Liberated: from the occupying forces of the world government set up perhaps as “peacekeepers”. Call her: compare 23:5, 6, where the same title is given to the Branch mentioned both there and here. The city, which in Hebrew is a feminine noun, will be called by the same name as her bridegroom, for the people who make up the city will be married to YaHuWSHuWaH as His bride.


 33:17 For thus says YaHuWaH: The One sitting on the throne of the House of Ysra'al on Dawiyd's behalf shall never be cut off.  


House of Ysra'al: Here, the entire reunited nation.


33:18 Neither shall the priests the Lewiym lack a man before Me to offer burnt offerings, and to burn meal offerings, and to carry out a slaughter for all time. 


A slaughter for all time: Even now when there is no physical Hekal, as the book of Hebrews details, YaHuWSHuWaH has served as a “slaughter for all time”.


33:19 The Word of YaHuWaH came to YirmeYahuw, saying, 33:20 Thus says YaHuWaH: If you can annul My covenant of the day, and My covenant of the night, so that there shall not be day and night at their proper time;  33:21 then may also My covenant be broken with Dawiyd My servant, that he shall not have a son to reign on his throne; and with the Lewiym the priests, My ministers. 


This verse should have precluded many interpretations of the "New Testament" that claim His covenant with Ysra'al was done-away-with, but still there are many who have tried to claim His earlier covenants have been annulled.


 33:22 Just as the army of the sky can’t be numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured; so shall I multiply the seed of Dawiyd My servant, and the Lewiym who minister to Me. 

 33:23 The Word of YaHuWaH came to YirmeYahuw, saying, 33:24 Haven't you noticed what this people is saying? And I quote: "The two families which YaHuWaH did choose, He has cast them off !" Thus do they despise My people, that they should be no more a nation before them.


Both families: i.e., that of David, the ruling line, and that of Aharon, the priestly lineage. My people: Ysra'al as a whole, whether this means spurning the Jews, whom they identified as the only descendants of Ya'aqob, or refusing to consider the many “saved” individuals to be the literal nation of Ysra'al, though that is who they were all along. Not allowing: like Pharaoh; perhaps we will receive similar opposition from leaders of those Ysra'alites who do not wish to return to being one people, and will try not to allow the rest of us to do so.


 33:25 Thus says YaHuWaH: If My covenant of day and night fails, if I have not appointed the laws of skys and earth; 33:26 then shall I also cast away the seed of Ya'aqob, and of Dawiyd My servant, so that I shall not take of his seed to be rulers over the seed of Abraham, Yitschaq, and Ya'aqob: for I shall cause their captivity/exile to return, and shall have mercy on them.


[588-587 B.C.E.]

34:1 The Word which came to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH, when Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel, and all his army, and all the kingdoms of the earth that were under his dominion, and all the peoples, were fighting against Yahrushalom, and against all the cities of it, saying: 34:2 Thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, Go, and speak to TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah, and tell him, Thus says YaHuWaH, Behold, I shall give this city into the hand of the sovereign of Babel, and he shall burn it with fire: 34:3 and you shall not escape out of his hand, but shall surely be taken, and delivered into his hand; and your eyes shall see the eyes of the sovereign of Babel, and he shall speak with you mouth to mouth, and you shall go to Babel. 34:4 Yet hear the Word of YaHuWaH, O TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah: thus says YaHuWaH concerning you, You shall not die by the sword; 34:5 you shall die in peace; and with the burnings of your fathers, the former sovereigns who were before you, so shall they make a burning for you; and they shall lament you, saying, Ah Sovereign! for I have spoken the word, says YaHuWaH.  Then YirmeYahuw the prophet spoke all these words to TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah in Yahrushalom,  34:7 when the sovereign of Babel’s army was fighting against Yahrushalom, and against all the cities of Yahuwdah that were left, against Lachiysh and against Azeqah; for these alone remained of the cities of Yahuwdah as fortified cities.


Lakhish and Azeqah were the last and strongest of a chain of defense cities built along the Sh’felah (foothills) to withstand an Mitsrayimian attack on Yahrushalom. Lakhish means “invincible”; it was nearly so, having two walls, once of them 6 meters thick. But Yahuwah had let it fall once before because it had opened the door for sin in the Land. (Micha 1:13) That time He spared Yahrushalom because of Hizqiyahu’s prayers, but this time He would not. Azeqah means “dug for a fence”, and it is quite close to where David killed Golyath. Letters have been found from this specific time confirming that all the other fortress-cities that defended Yahrushalom had been snuffed out, and that the writers were looking for the light-signal from Lakhish because the light had already gone out at Azeqah.


 34:8 The Word that came to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH, after that the sovereign TsidqiYahuw had cut a covenant with all the people who were at Yahrushalom, to proclaim liberty to them; 


Proclaim liberty: the command given in Lev. 25:10 in regard to the 50th year. Perhaps the king, knowing that the reason for the prophesied captivity was the failure to give the land its rest every seventh year, was trying a last-ditch effort to evade capture by obeying another law that had to do with the seventh-year release. (v. 14)


34:9 that every man should let his male servant, and every man his female servant, 

who is an Ibriy man or woman,  go free; that none should make bondservants of them, to wit, of a Yahuwdim, his brother. 34:10 All the princes and all the people obeyed, who had entered into the covenant, that everyone should let his male servant, and everyone his female servant, go free, that none should make bondservants of them any more; they obeyed, and let them go:  34:11 but afterwards they changed their minds, and caused the servants and the handmaids, whom they had let go free, to return, and brought them into subjection for servants and for handmaids.


The laws of slavery in Ysra'al are to benefit the slave (to enable him to get out of debt) more than to benefit the slaveholder. This action proves that they had not understood this principle at all. When the pressure was off (v. 21), they went back on their word. There had to be societal support for the slaves being freed; they could not just leave on their own, though Yahuwah had given them the right to go free at this time.


 34:12 Therefore the Word of YaHuWaH came to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH, saying, 34:13 Thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: I made a covenant with your fathers in the day that I brought them forth out of the land of Mitsrayim, out of the house of bondage, saying,  34:14 At the end of seven years you shall let go every man his brother who is a Ibriy, who has been sold to you, and has served you six years, you shall let him go free from you: but your fathers didn’t listen to Me, neither inclined their ear.  34:15 You recently turned, and did that which is right in My eyes, in proclaiming liberty every man to his neighbor; and you had made a covenant before Me in the House which is called by My Name: 34:16 but you turned back and profaned My Name, and each one of you took back his male and female slaves whom you had let go free at their pleasure, and you brought them into subjection, to be to your male and female slaves. 34:17 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH: you have not listened to Me, to proclaim liberty, every man to his brother, and every man to his neighbor: so here I am proclaiming liberty to you, says YaHuWaH, to the sword, to the pestilence, and to the famine; and I shall make you to be tossed back and forth among all the kingdoms of the earth.


Note Yahuwah’s sarcasm toward those who had proven they did not love their neighbors. The Northern Kingdom, too, proclaimed the wrong type of freedom (from Torah instead of from sin and tyranny), and for a time Yahuwah gave us up to our desires. Made you a cause for trembling: LXX, given you up to dispersion.


34:18 I shall give the men who have transgressed My Covenant, who have not performed the words of the covenant which they made before Me, when they cut the calf in two and passed between its parts; 


Passed between its pieces: a traditional way of expressing the thought, “May the same happen to me if I do not keep my side of the agreement.” The nation of Ysra'al was indeed cut in two when we did not keep the covenant we had made with Yahuwah. The covenant referred to here is one of agreeing to obey an existing covenant that had been broken. (v. 8)


34:19 the princes of Yahuwdah, and the princes of Yahrushalom, the eunuchs, and the priests, and all the people of the Land, who passed between the parts of the calf; 34:20 I shall even give them into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of those who seek their life; and their dead bodies shall be for food to the birds of the sky, and to the animals of the earth. 34:21 TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah and his princes shall I give into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of those who seek their life, and into the hand of the sovereign of Babel’s army, who is withdrawing from being upon you.


Withdrawing: the history of this period is recounted in 2 Chron. 36:4-17, where we are told that Nevukhadretzar sent into exile those who tried to escape from him.


 34:22 Behold, I shall command, says YaHuWaH, and cause them to return to this city; and they shall fight against it, and take it, and burn it with fire: and I shall make the cities of Yahuwdah a desolation, without inhabitant.



35:1 The Word which came to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH in the days of Yahuwyaqim the son of YoshiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah, saying, 35:2 Go to the house of the Rechabiym, and speak to them, and bring them into the House of YaHuWaH, into one of the chambers, and give them wine to drink. 


Rekhabites: possibly from the tribe of Binyamin (2 Shmuel 4:2), possibly descendants of Chemath the Qeynite (1 Chron. 2:55). Chambers: very large rooms or halls within the Temple complex. Notice the flattery by which YirmeYahuw tested the resolve of this clan.


 35:3 Then I took Ya'azanYahuw the son of YirmeYahuw, the son of ChabatstsanYahuw, and his brothers, and all his sons, and the whole house of the Rechabiym; 


He brought the whole family as part of the test, to see whether the weakest link might give in. Ya’azanyahuw means “Yahuwah gives ear”. YirmeYahuw (not the prophet) means “Yahuwah has raised up”. Khabatzinyahuw appears to mean “brightness of Yahuwah” or “strong fragrance of Yahuwah”.


 35:4 and I brought them into the House of YaHuWaH, into the chamber of the sons of Chanan the son of YigdalYahuw, the man of Aluahiym, which was by the chamber of the princes, which was above the chamber of Ma'aseYahuw the son of Shalluwm, the keeper of the threshold. 


This shows that some people actually had permanent dwelling places in the complex of Shlomo’s Temple; this was not the case in the second Temple period. Chanan means “he has shown favor”; YigdalYahuw means “Magnified by Yahuwah”. Ma’aseYahuw means “work of Yahuwah”; Shallum means “payback”.


 35:5 I set before the sons of the house of the Rechabiym vessels full of wine, and cups; and I said to them, Drink wine! 35:6 But they said, We shall drink no wine; for Yonadab the son of Rekab, our father, commanded us, saying, You shall drink no wine, neither you, nor your sons, forever: [2 Melakim 10:15-28] 


Yonadab means “Yahuwah is generous”. Rekhab means “one who mounts up and rides”, or possibly, “one who reduces demands”. Yet his descendants proved that this is not what they were! Yonadab’s story of heroism against the worshippers of Ba’al with Yehu is told in 2 Kings 10:15ff.


35:7 neither shall you build houses, nor sow seeds, nor plant vineyards, nor have any; but all your days you shall dwell in tents; that you may live many days in the land in which you sojourn.


This was a family that could not violate the laws of the seventh year (as the rest of the nation had, ch. 34) since they had neither houses for slaves to work in nor fields to leave fallow.


35:8 We have obeyed the voice of Yonadab the son of Rekab, our father, in all that he commanded us, to drink no wine all our days, we, our wives, our sons, or our daughters; 35:9 nor to build houses for us to dwell in; neither have we vineyards, nor fields, nor seeds: 35:10 but we have lived in tents, and have obeyed, and done according to all that Yawnadab our father commanded us. 35:11 But it happened, when Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel came up into the land, that we said, Come, and let us go to Yahrushalom for fear of the army of the Kasdiy, and for fear of the army of the Aram; so we dwell at Yahrushalom. 

35:12 Then came the Word of YaHuWaH to YirmeYahuw, saying,  35:13 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Go, and tell the men of Yahuwdah and the inhabitants of Yahrushalom, shall you not receive instruction to listen to My Words? says YaHuWaH.  35:14 The words of Yawnadab the son of Rekab, that he commanded his sons, not to drink wine, are performed; and to this day they drink none, for they obey their father’s commandment: but I have spoken to you, rising up early and speaking; and you have not listened to Me.


If they have so meticulously obeyed the words of a mere man, how much more should they have obeyed Yahuwah’s own commands? Wine is usually an integral part of the celebration of the Sabbath and quite allowable at His festivals (Deut. 14:26) unless one is a Nazirite (Num. 6:3) or a priest on active duty (Lev. 10:9). But though Yahuwah Himself had been the one to give the command through His prophet, these people still stuck with an agreement they had made with their ancestor. Of all the times they could have made an excuse! This was the Lawgiver of lawgivers telling them what they were free to do. Yet they paid homage to the law that was closest to them, and Yahuwah both honored and commended this. “No scripture is of private interpretation.” (2 Kefa/Peter 1:20-21) In Ysra'al there must be a protocol of authority structure for interpersonal dealings to flow smoothly. Just because the Torah allows something does not mean an individual may choose his own way. The lowest standard allowed is that of the household (extended family ruled by a patriarch), and from there it proceeds upward to the captains of tens, fifties, hundreds, and thousands. (Ex. 18:21-25)


 35:15 I have sent also to you all My servants the prophets, rising up early and sending them, saying, return now every man from his evil way, and amend your doings, and don’t go after other mighty ones to serve them, and you shall dwell on the ground which I have given to you and to your fathers: but you have not inclined your ear, nor listened to Me. 35:16 The sons of Yawnadab the son of Rekab have indeed carried out the commandment of their father  which he commanded them, but this people has not listened to Me; 35:17 therefore thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Behold, I shall bring on Yahuwdah and on all the inhabitants of Yahrushalom all the evil that I have pronounced against them; because I have spoken to them, but they have not heard; and I have called to them, but they have not answered.  35:18 YirmeYahuw said to the House of the Rechabiym, Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Because you have obeyed the commandment of Yawnadab your father, and kept all his precepts, and done according to all that he commanded you; 35:19 therefore thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Yawnadab the son of Rekab shall not lack an heir to stand before Me for all time. [literally, for all days; LXX, while the earth remains. Thus at least one of his male descendants is alive today!]


36:1 It happened in the fourth year of Yahuwyaqim the son of YoshiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah, that this word came to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH, saying, 36:2 Take a scroll of a book, and write in it all the words that I have spoken to you against Ysra'al, and against Yahuwdah, and against all the nations, from the day I spoke to you, from the days of YoshiYahuw, even to this day. 36:3 It may be that the House of Yahuwdah shall hear all the evil which I purpose to do to them; that they may return every man from his evil way; that I may pardon their iniquity and their sin.


So that I can: Yahuwah limits Himself to a particular order. Their sin: What He is punishing is their collective sin, but it is made up of the sins of individuals.


 36:4 Then YirmeYahuw called Baruwk the son of NeriYahuw; and Baruwk wrote from the mouth of YirmeYahuw all the words of YaHuWaH, which He had spoken to him, on a scroll of a book.  36:5-6  YirmeYahuw commanded Baruwk, saying, I am shut up; I can’t go into the House of YaHuWaH: therefore you go, and read the scroll, which you have written from my mouth, the words of YaHuWaH in the ears of the people in YaHuWaH’s House on the fast day [Atonement ?]; and also you shall read them in the ears of all Yahuwdah who come out of their cities. 36:7 Maybe their plea for consideration will alight in YaHuWaH's presence,  and maybe each shall return everyone from his evil way; for great is the anger and the wrath that YaHuWaH has pronounced against this people. 


Alight: literally, fall. We must lower ourselves and ask Him even to allow us to repent, because repentance, too, is something He must grant us before we can experience it. The first step toward breaking down the barrier with Him is to say, “I am guilty.”


 36:8 Baruwk the son of NeriYahuw did according to all that YirmeYahuw the prophet commanded him, reading in the book the words of YaHuWaH in YaHuWaH’s House. 36:9 Now it happened in the fifth year of Yahuwyaqim the son of YoshiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah, in the ninth month, that all the people in Yahrushalom, and all the people who came from the cities of Yahuwdah to Yahrushalom, proclaimed a fast before YaHuWaH.  36:10 Then read Baruwk from the book the words of YirmeYahuw in the House of YaHuWaH, in the chamber of GemarYahuw the son of Shaphan, the scribe, in the upper court, at the entry of the new gate of YaHuWaH’s House, in the hearing of all the people. 36:11 When MichaYahuw the son of GemarYahuw, the son of Shaphan, had heard out of the book all the words of YaHuWaH,     MichaYahuw means “Who is like Yahuwah?”

36:12 he went down into the king’s house, into the scribe’s chamber: and behold, all the princes were sitting there, to wit, Eliyshama the scribe, and DelaYahuw the son of ShemaYahuw, and Elnathan the son of Akbowr, and GemarYahuw the son of Shaphan, and TsidqiYahuw the son of HananYahuw, and all the princes. 


Leaders: or, princes. Eliyshama means “My Aluahiym has heard”. DelaYahuw means “Yahuwah has drawn up”. Shema’Yahu means “Yahuwah has listened”. GemarYahuw means “Yahuwah has completed (His accomplishment)”. Shafan means “rock hyrax”. TzidqiYahuw means “Yahuwah is my righteousness”. ChananYahuw means “Yahuwah has shown favor”. Notice that all of their names say something positive about Yahuwah.


 36:13 Then MichaYahuw declared to them all the words that he had heard, when Baruwk read the book in the hearing of the people. 36:14 Therefore all the princes sent Yahudim the son of NethanYahuw, the son of ShelemYahuw, the son of Kuwshiy, to Baruwk, saying, Take in your hand the scroll in which you have read in the hearing of the people, and come. So Baruwk the son of NeriYahuw took the scroll in his hand, and came to them.


Yehudi: means a Yudahite (or “Jew”). ShelemYahuw means “Repaid by Yahuwah”. Kushi: a dark-skinned person.


 36:15 They said to him, Sit down now, and read it to us. So Baruwk read it in their hearing. 36:16 Now it happened, when they had heard all the words, they turned in fear one toward another, and said to Baruwk, We shall surely tell the sovereign of all these words. 36:17 They asked Baruwk, saying, Tell us now, How did you write all these words? From his mouth? 36:18 Then Baruwk answered them, He pronounced all these words to me with his mouth, and I wrote them with ink in the book. 


[Yahuwchanan  12:49 For I spoke not from Myself, but the Father Who sent Me, He gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak. 12:50 I know that His commandment is eternal life. The things therefore which I speak, even as the Father has said to Me, so I exactly speak it.” ]


36:19 Then said the princes to Baruwk, Go, hide, you and YirmeYahuw; and let no man know where you are. 36:20 They went in to the sovereign into the court; but they had laid up the scroll in the chamber of Eliyshama the scribe; and they spoke all the words in the hearing of the sovereign. 36:21 So the sovereign sent Yahudim to get the scroll; and he took it out of the chamber of Eliyshama the scribe. Yahudim read it in the hearing of the sovereign, and in the hearing of all the princes who stood beside the sovereign. 36:22 Now the sovereign was sitting in the winter house in the ninth month: and there was a fire in the brazier burning before him. 36:23 It happened, when Yahudim had read three or four leaves, that the sovereign cut it with the penknife, and cast it into the fire that was in the brazier, until all the scroll was consumed in the fire that was in the brazier.


He: the king. Scribe’s razor: or pen-knife, which he would use to scrape off an error he had written, much as an eraser is used today. Perhaps, like Thomas Jefferson, he had the audacity to cut out the parts he did not agree with, thinking that if he ignored it long enough, the truth would go away. But people do this in more subtle ways by translating Scripture to hide what it really says: “Christ is the end of the Law” instead of “Mashiyach is the goal toward which the Torah aims”, etc. Another king (James) cut off the whole Torah in this way because it did not suit his theology or political aims, and thus he and other theologians left Ysra'al a powerless, lob-sided people. But generalizing the truth or taking it out of context does not make it any less true, and a day of reckoning must come.


 36:24 They were not afraid, nor tore their garments, neither the sovereign, nor any of his servants who heard all these words.


Tear their garments: a sign of mourning and repentance. This action gave the king no pangs of conscience at all. They had no respect for Yahuwah, so He would show them no respect. Their only fear was that no one would respect their position if they let YirmeYahuw get away with saying all these things against him.


 36:25 Moreover Elnathan and DelaYahuw and GemarYahuw had made intercession to the sovereign that he would not burn the scroll; but he would not hear them.

 

After His blanket disapproval of these leaders, Yahuwah made sure these men who were the exception received the credit for acting in opposition to the majority.


36:26 The sovereign commanded Yerachme'el the king’s son, and SeraYahuw the son of Azriy'el, and ShelemYahuw the son of Abde'el, to take Baruwk the scribe and YirmeYahuw the prophet; but YaHuWaH hid them.


Yerachme’el means “Aluahiym will have mercy”—an assumption that was presumptuous to make. Serayah means “Yahuwah exerts power”. Azriel means “Aluahiym is my help”. ShelemYahuw means “repaid by Yahuwah” and Abd’el means “servant of Aluahiym”. Their names would make one think they were on Yahuwah’s side, and they probably thought they were, but in actuality they were not.


36:27 Then the word of YaHuWaH came to YirmeYahuw, after the sovereign had burned the scroll, and the words which Baruwk wrote at the mouth of YirmeYahuw, saying, 36:28 Take again another scroll, and write in it all the former words that were in the first scroll, which Yahuwyaqim the sovereign of Yahuwdah has burned. 36:29 Concerning Yahuwyaqim sovereign of Yahuwdah you shall say, Thus says YaHuWaH: You have burned this scroll, saying, Why have you written in it, saying, The sovereign of Babel shall certainly come and destroy this Land, and shall cause to cease from there man and animal? 36:30 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH concerning Yahuwyaqim sovereign of Yahuwdah: He shall have none to sit on the throne of Dawiyd; and his dead body shall be cast out in the day to the heat, and in the night to the frost. 36:31 I shall punish him and his seed and his servants for their iniquity; and I shall bring on them, and on the inhabitants of Yahrushalom, and on the men of Yahuwdah, all the evil that I have pronounced against them, but they didn’t listen. 36:32 Then took YirmeYahuw another scroll, and gave it to Baruwk the scribe, the son of NeriYahuw, who wrote therein from the mouth of YirmeYahuw all the words of the book which Yahuwyaqim sovereign of Yahuwdah had burned in the fire; and there were added besides to them many like words.



37:1 TsidqiYahuw the son of YoshiYahuw reigned as sovereign, instead of KonYahuw the son of Yahuwyaqim, whom Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel made sovereign in the land of Yahuwdah. 37:2 But neither he, nor his servants, nor the people of the Land, did listen to the Words of YaHuWaH, which He spoke by the prophet YirmeYahuw. 37:3 TsidqiYahuw the sovereign sent Yehuwkal the son of ShelemYahuw, and TsephanYahuw the son of Ma'aseYahuw, the priest, to the prophet YirmeYahuw, saying, Pray now to YaHuWaH our Aluahiym for us.


They thought they could still simply ask for the prophet’s (and Yahuwah’s) help while ignoring his words.


37:4 Now YirmeYahuw was still coming and going among the people; for they had not put him into prison. 


36:19 tells us that he was to hide. So where did he hide? Among the crowds, just as YaHuWSHuWaH did. (Yahuwchanan18:20) YaHuWSHuWaH did little that one or another of the prophets before Him had not done, even raising the dead. But He brought together something of what each had done, as a sign that He was the one they all pointed to.


37:5  Par'oh's army had come forth out of Mitsrayim; and when the Kasdiy who were besieging Yahrushalom heard news of them, they withdrew from Yahrushalom. 37:6 Then came the Word of YaHuWaH to the prophet YirmeYahuw, saying, 37:7 Thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, You shall tell the sovereign of Yahuwdah, who sent you to me to inquire of me: Behold, Par'oh's army, which has come to help you, shall return to Mitsrayim into their own land. 37:8 The Kasdiy shall come again, and fight against this city; and they shall take it, and burn it with fire.  37:9 Thus says YaHuWaH, Don’t deceive yourselves, saying, The Kasdiy shall surely depart from us; for they shall not depart. 37:10 For though you had struck the whole army of the Kasdiy who fight against you, and there remained but wounded men among them, yes would they rise up every man from his tent, and burn this city with fire.


No natural advantage or probability was going to prevent Yahuwah from bringing justice upon them.


 37:11 It happened that, when the army of the Kasdiy withdrew from Yahrushalom for fear of Par'oh's army,  37:12 then YirmeYahuw went out of Yahrushalom to go into the land of Binyamin, to receive his portion there in the midst of the people. 37:13 When he was in the gate of Binyamin, a captain of the guard was there, whose name was Yir'iYahuw, the son of ShelemYahuw, the son of ChananYahuw; and he laid hold on YirmeYahuw the prophet, saying, You are deserting to the Kasdiy. 


Captain of the guard: LXX, a man with whom he lodged. Yir’iyah means “Yahuwah sees me”. ChananYahuw: a common name, but perhaps the same man mentioned in 36:14.


37:14 Then said YirmeYahuw, It is false; I am not deserting to the Kasdiy. But he didn’t listen to him; so Yir'iyah laid hold on YirmeYahuw, and brought him to the princes. 37:15 The princes were angry with YirmeYahuw, and struck him, and put him in prison in the house of Yahuwnathan the scribe; for they had made that the prison. 37:16 When YirmeYahuw had entered into the dungeon and into the cells, then YirmeYahuw remained there many days; 37:17 Then TsidqiYahuw the sovereign sent, and fetched him: and the sovereign asked him secretly in his house, and said, Is there any word from YaHuWaH? YirmeYahuw said, There is. He said also, You shall be delivered into the hand of the sovereign of Babel.  


Perhaps this king is different from his predecessors—at least softening (even if not publicly) when he sees the prophecies coming to pass.


37:18 Moreover YirmeYahuw said to sovereign TsidqiYahuw, Wherein have I sinned against you, or against your servants, or against this people, that you have put me in prison? 37:19 Where now are your prophets who prophesied to you, saying, The sovereign of Babel shall not come against you, nor against this Land? 37:20 Now please hear, my master the king: please let my supplication be presented before you, that you not cause me to return to the house of Yahuwnathan the scribe, lest I die there!

37:21 Then TsidqiYahuw the sovereign commanded, and they committed YirmeYahuw into the court of the guard; and they gave him daily a loaf of bread out of the bakers’ street, until all the bread in the city was spent. Thus YirmeYahuw remained in the court of the guard.


Despite his sins, the king still had some degree of respect for Yahuwah. Perhaps this is why Yahuwah did not let him be killed in battle. Consumed from out of the city: i.e., until the siege caused them to run out of supplies. The siege began on the tenth day of the tenth month, and it is common to fast on that day in commemoration. (Zech. 8:19)


38:1 ShephatYahuw the son of Mattan, and GedalYahuw the son of Pashchuwr, and Yukhal the son of ShelemYahuw, and Pashchuwr the son of MalkiYahuw, heard the words that YirmeYahuw spoke to all the people, saying, 38:2 Thus says YaHuWaH, He who remains in this city shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence; but he who goes forth to the Kasdiy shall live, and his life shall be to him for a prize, and he shall live. 38:3 Thus says YaHuWaH, This city shall surely be given into the hand of the army of the sovereign of Babel, and he shall take it. 38:4 Then the princes said to the sovereign, Let this man, we pray you, be put to death; because he weakens the hands of the men of war who remain in this city, and the hands of all the people, in speaking such words to them: for this man doesn’t seek the welfare of this people, but the hurt. 


Disheartening: LXX, weakening. All YirmeYahuw would have to do was compromise by toning down his message; after all, he might have saved some lives! But he did not consider this an option.


38:5 TsidqiYahuw the sovereign said, Behold, he is in your hand; for the sovereign is not one who can do anything against you. 


[Aramaic, the king cannot answer you a word. I.e., the king was now as powerless as everyone else in the city, as the siege wore on. Also, these four men (in v. 1, and perhaps others) were so influential that they actually had more control over the people than the king did.]


38:6 Then they took YirmeYahuw, and cast him into the cistern of MalkiYahuw the king’s son, that was in the court of the guard: and they let down YirmeYahuw with ropes. In the cistern there was no water, but mire; and YirmeYahuw sank in the mire.


This was a literal example of the “broken cisterns that can hold no water” (2:13) Water is a symbol of Yahuwah’s word, and a cistern is related in Hebrew to the word for “well”, whose common root means “a place to find clarity or explanation”. Instead, this one did just the opposite: it muddied everything. It was symbolic of the state that Yahrushalom was in, since it was the place which, of all places, was meant to bring clarity. It had been clouded by the shepherds of Ysra'al. (Compare Yehezqel 34:18ff.) They were trying to claim YirmeYahuw was the one doing this (v. 4), but it was their cistern he was put in, and it was the muddy one.


 38:7 Now when the servant of the king, the Kuwshiy, a eunuch, who was in the king’s house, heard that they had put YirmeYahuw in the well (the sovereign then sitting in the gate of Binyamin),


Eved-Melekh means “a servant of the king”, but it was not king Tzidqiyahu that he proved to be serving, but the King of Kings, Yahuwah. Kushite: LXX, Ethiopian—which many Kushites were indeed, but the descendants of Kush also included Nimrod’s line in the land of Shinar (Babelia). The word itself simply means a dark-skinned person. Eunuch: or simply, a court official, since he would not technically be a “man” if he was a eunuch. Tradition says he was the only pious man among the courtiers of the king. (Ginzberg)


 38:8 the servant of the king went forth out of the king’s house, and spoke to the sovereign, saying,  38:9 My master the sovereign, these men have done evil in all that they have done to YirmeYahuw the prophet, whom they have cast into the cistern; and he is likely to die of hunger in the bottom of it, because there is no more bread in the city.

He will die: could be translated, he has died. Tradition says that since Yehonathan the jailer had a habit of making annoying comments to mock YirmeYahuw, he did not answer when Eved-Melekh called him either, and Eved-Melekh thought he had already died. It was not until Eved-Melekh began to weep that YirmeYahuw realized that he was a pious man instead, and thereupon replied. (Ginzberg)


 38:10 Then the sovereign commanded his servant, the Kuwshiy, saying, Take from hence thirty men with you, and take up YirmeYahuw the prophet out of the well, before he dies. 


Thirty men: David had thirty particularly mighty men. (2 Shmuel 23) This probably indicates that he was bringing along a whole military unit to guard him as he rescued YirmeYahuw, rather than meaning he was stuck so fast in the mud that it required thirty men to extricate him. In your hand: LXX, with you.


38:11 So the servant of the king took the men with him, and went into the house of the sovereign under the treasury, and took there rags and worn-out garments, and let them down by cords into the cistern to YirmeYahuw. 


The lower level of the storehouse: or, underneath the treasury. Scraps: from the word for dissipating or becoming scattered, a common root with the word for salt. Luke 14:33-34 links salt losing its savor with refusing to forsake all that one has to follow YaHuWSHuWaH. But it is the scattered (exiled from Ysra'al) who are instrumental in the resurrection of the One New Man of which YaHuWSHuWaH is the Head. (YirmeYahuw lived out a foreshadowing of YaHuWSHuWaH’s resurrection, as one appointed over the nations, 1:9-10) These particular scraps appear to have been from the king’s old clothes (or perhaps the garments of the priests). At one time they were very useful in identifying the one who wore them. Once the king had the ability to sustain the people, but he did not uphold Torah, so even his influence was only a shred of what it had been (v. 5), yet this once he did the right thing, so even what was cast off (the remnant of what had once been) brought deliverance to the faithful. Bareshiyth 35:2 links putting away foreign gods with changing one’s garments. The garment we changed into after putting away idolatry—the Torah and the authority once taken away from Ysra'al—will save what is left of a once-awesome nation. It is our responsibility to restore the “salt” by making new salt—disciples who will indeed forsake all for YaHuWSHuWaH and His Kingdom, Ysra'al.


38:12 The servant of the king, the Kuwshiy, said to YirmeYahuw, Put now these rags and worn-out garments under your armpits under the ropes. YirmeYahuw did so.


Joints: probably armpits, but perhaps elbows. Eved-Melekh was considerate enough to think of the detail of YirmeYahuw’s comfort even during his rescue, rather than merely saying, “This is the best I can do.”


 38:13 So they drew up YirmeYahuw with the ropes, and took him up out of the cistern: and YirmeYahuw remained in the court of the guard. 38:14 Then TsidqiYahuw the sovereign sent, and took YirmeYahuw the prophet to him into the third entry that is in the house of YaHuWaH: and the sovereign said to YirmeYahuw, I shall ask you something. Hide nothing from me.


The third entrance: This was also the third time the king asked for an audience with YirmeYahuw, but did not heed his words.


38:15 Then YirmeYahuw said to TsidqiYahuw, If I declare it to you, shall you not surely put me to death? and if I give you counsel, you shall not listen to me. 38:16 So TsidqiYahuw the sovereign swore secretly to YirmeYahuw, saying, As YaHuWaH lives, who made us this life, I shall not put you to death, neither shall I give you into the hand of these men who seek your life. 38:17 Then said YirmeYahuw to TsidqiYahuw, Thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: If you shall go forth to the sovereign of Babel’s princes, then your being shall live, and this city shall not be burned with fire; and you shall live, and your house.


The Temple could have been spared if he had been obedient. This may be a prophecy of the need for today’s Yahuwdah to “surrender” to joining the rest of the tribes which are still in Babel in order that the whole nation of Ysra'al may survive. YaHuWSHuWaH said there would again be a time to flee from the Land of Yahuwdah (Mark 13:14) before the whole nation could return and be permanently placed in the Land. They were bowing to Mitsrayim in hopes that Babel would not be able to conquer them, much as Yahuwdah today bows to the wishes of the United States in order to escape subjugation to the United Nations. However, whatever she regards as her security is an idol, and will have to prove disappointing because Ysra'al belongs to Yahuwah and no one else.


 38:18 But if you shall not go forth to the sovereign of Babel’s princes, then shall this city be given into the hand of the Kasdiy, and they shall burn it with fire, and you shall not escape out of their hand.


What was the point of Yahuwah’s wanting them to surrender? It would show that they were willing to admit their wrong and take their due in punishment. It was actually Him to whom they would be surrendering, and He would accordingly be merciful. Today we again have the occasion to confess the guilt we have inherited from our ancestors (16:19). What stood in this king’s way was the fear of men:


 38:19 TsidqiYahuw the sovereign said to YirmeYahuw, I am afraid of the Yahuwdim who have gone over to the Kasdiy, lest they deliver me into their hand, and they will abuse me.


Have fallen: Aramaic, who desert; LXX, who have gone over (which was in obedience to Yahuwah). Abuse: the Heb. term includes dealing ruthlessly with someone, mocking him, thrusting him through, or making a fool of him.


38:20 But YirmeYahuw said, They shall not deliver you. Obey, I beg you, the Voice of YaHuWaH, in that which I speak to you: so it shall be well with you, and your being shall live.  38:21 But if you refuse to go forth, this is the word that YaHuWaH has shown me: 38:22 behold, all the women who are left in the sovereign of Yahuwdah’s house shall be brought forth to the sovereign of Babel’s princes, and those women shall say, "Your confederates have enticed you and have succeeded in defeating you:  your feet have been made to sink in the mire, they have turned their backs on you."


Men of peace: LXX, men who were at peace with you; Aramaic, confederates. Sink in the mire: the very sentence they had forced YirmeYahuw to live through. It would come back on their own heads.


 38:23 They shall bring out all your wives and your children to the Kasdiy; and you shall not escape out of their hand, but shall be taken by the hand of the sovereign of Babel: and you shall cause this city to be burned with fire. 38:24 Then said TsidqiYahuw to YirmeYahuw, Let no man know of these words, and you shall not die. 38:25 But if the princes hear that I have talked with you, and they come to you, and tell you, Declare to us now what you have said to the sovereign; don’t hide it from us, and we shall not put you to death; also what the sovereign said to you: 38:26 then you shall tell them, I presented my supplication before the sovereign, that he would not cause me to return to Yahuwnathan’s house, to die there. 38:27 Then came all the princes to YirmeYahuw, and asked him; and he told them according to all these words that the sovereign had commanded. So they left off speaking with him; for the matter was not perceived. 38:28 So YirmeYahuw remained in the court of the guard until the day that Yahrushalom was taken.


39:1  In the ninth year of TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah, in the tenth month [in the fifth day of the month], came Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel and all his army against Yahrushalom, and besieged it. 


Prophetically this may have a second fulfillment in the siege described in Zech. 13-14. 14:1 "Behold, a Day of YaHuWaH comes, when your spoil will be divided in your midst. 14:2 For I will gather all nations against Yahrushalom to battle; and the city will be taken, the houses rifled, and the women ravished. Half of the city will go out into captivity, but the remnant of the people will not be cut off from the city."


39:2 In the eleventh year of TsidqiYahuw, in the fourth month, the ninth day of the month, a breach was made in the city -  [the city fell]).


[The city wall was again breached on this same date in A.D. 70, and the second Hekal destroyed the next day, according to the historian Josephus.]...  BCE 588 (586) month of Tammuz (July) the siege of Yahrushalom lasted just 18 months] see 2 Kings 25:2-4 also chp. 52:6-7 .... but it was not burned until the 5th month on the ninth and tenth day. Chp. 52:12-13


39:3 And all the princes of the sovereign of Babel came in, and sat in the middle gate, to wit, Nergal-Shar'etser, Samgar-Nebow, Sarsekim, Rab-Sariys, Nergal-Sharetser, Rab-mag, with all the rest of the princes of the sovereign of Babel.  39:4 It happened that, when TsidqiYahuw the sovereign of Yahuwdah and all the men of war saw them, then they fled, and went forth out of the city by night, by the way of the king’s garden, through the gate between the two [joined] walls; and he went out toward the Arabah. 39:5 But the army of the Kasdiy pursued after them, and overtook TsidqiYahuw in the plains of Yerichow: and when they had taken him, they brought him up to Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel to Riblah in the land of Chamath; and he gave judgment on him. 


Jewish tradition says he tried to escape through a cave that led from his house to Yericho, but Yahuwah sent a deer into the camp of the Khasdim (Khasim), which, when chased, led them directly to the opening at the other end of the cave at the precise moment TzidqiYahuw was reaching it. (Ginzberg) Joseph Good sees a parallel here with the Counterfeit Mashiyach’s capture since he will be thrown alive into the Lake of Fire (Rev. 19:20), which is how the Dead Sea was described when solid petroleum deposits would bubble up from fissures in its depths, and be set on fire by lightning. These fissures were sealed off by an earthquake in 1840, but another earthquake, when the Mashiyach sets His foot on the Mount of Olives (Zech. 14:4) may open it up again. The Dead Sea is very close to the plain of Yericho. Jewish legend says TzidqiYahuw had broken faith with Nevukhadretzar on several occasions, publicly shaming him with knowledge he had sworn not to reveal, and Nevukahdretzar told him that, while according to the Torah and the laws of the state, he should receive the death penalty for his false oaths, he could be spared if he remained loyal. Again he swore to this to save his life, but then went back on his promise. (Ginzberg)


39:6 Then the sovereign of Babel killed the sons of TsidqiYahuw in Riblah before his eyes: also the sovereign of Babel killed all the nobles of Yahuwdah. 39:7 Moreover he put out TsidqiYahuw eyes, and bound him in fetters, to carry him to Babel.


[The prophet had told TsidqiYahuw that he would be exiled to Babel (34:3), but that he would never see that land. According to tradition, the king thought this was contradictory, and therefore untrue, but this is how the two prophecies converged:]


39:8 The Kasdiy burned the king’s house, and the houses of the people, with fire, and broke down the walls of Yahrushalom. 39:9 Then Nebuwzaradan the captain of the guard [chief executioner] carried away captive into Babel the residue of the people who remained in the city, the deserters also who fell away to him, and the residue of the people who remained. 


Captain of the guard: alt., chief butcher (as of those who massacre men) or chief executioner (as borne out by the Aramaic translation).


39:10 But Nebuwzaradan the captain of the guard left of the poor of the people, who had nothing, in the land of Yahuwdah, and gave them vineyards and fields at the same time. 


Poor: here, the weak, languishing, or low. He made them rich through a form of socialism that kept them docile, but under the wrong agreement; they were still used by those truly in power in a foreign land. They would be likely to tell their sons what Babel did for them rather than what Yahuwah did for them. This trick is still used today to keep churches towing the line of political agendas. The nobility who did surrender, however, such as Daniel, were treated well in their exile, and actually had government posts.


39:11 Now Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel commanded Nebuwzaradan the captain of the guard concerning YirmeYahuw, saying, 39:12 Take him, and look well to him, and do him no harm; but do to him even as he shall tell you. 39:13 So Nebuwzaradan the captain of the guard sent, and Nebushazban, Rab-Sariys, and Nergal- Shar'etser, Rab-mag, and all the chief officers of the sovereign of Babel; 39:14 they sent, and took YirmeYahuw out of the court of the guard, and committed him to GedalYahuw the son of Achiqam, the son of Shaphan, that he should carry him home: so he lived among the people. 39:15 Now the Word of YaHuWaH came to YirmeYahuw, while he was shut up in the court of the guard, saying, 39:16 Go, and speak to the servant of the king, the Kuwshiy, saying, Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Behold, I shall bring My Words on this city for evil, and not for good; and they shall be accomplished before you in that day. 39:17 But I shall deliver you in that day, says YaHuWaH; and you shall not be given into the hand of the men of whom you are afraid,


YaHuWSHuWaH said that anyone who aided one of His brothers who was in prison would also receive great reward. (Mat. 25:35ff; compare Psalm 91:7-8.)


39:18 because I will let you slip away to escape, s and you shall not fall by the sword, but your life shall be for a prize to you; because you have put your trust in Me, says YaHuWaH


Escape: a privilege that the king himself was not allowed. Since you have put your trust in Me: compare YashaYahuw 53:12; Psalm 91:9-10.



40:1 The Word which came to YirmeYahuw from YaHuWaH, after that Nebuwzaradan the captain of the guard had let him go from Ramah, when he had taken him being bound in chains among all the captives of Yahrushalom and Yahuwdah, who were carried away captive to Babel. 40:2 The captain of the guard took YirmeYahuw, and said to him, "YaHuWaH your Aluahiym pronounced this evil on this place; 40:3 and YaHuWaH has brought it, and done according as He spoke: because you have sinned against YaHuWaH, and have not obeyed His Voice, therefore this thing has come on you. This “word from YaHuWaH” actually came through the Babelonian official!

 40:4 Now, behold, I release you this day from the chains which are on your hand. If it seems good to you to come with me into Babel, come, and I shall take care of you; but if it seems bad to you to come with me into Babel, don’t: behold, all the land is before you; where it seems good and right to you to go, there go."  40:5 Now while he was not yet gone back he added, or go back to GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam, the son of Shaphan, whom the sovereign of Babel has made governor over the cities of Yahuwdah, and dwell with him among the people; or go wherever it seems right to you to go. So the captain of the guard gave him food and a presents according to the custom, and let him go. 40:6 Then went YirmeYahuw to GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam to Mitspah, and lived with him among the people who were left in the Land.


 40:7 Now when all the captains of the forces who were in the fields, even they and their men, heard that the sovereign of Babel had made GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam governor in the Land, and had committed to him men, and women, and children, and of the poorest of the Land, of those who were not carried away captive to Babel; 40:8 then they came to GedalYahuw to Mitspah, to wit, Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw, and Yowchanan and Yahuwnathan the sons of Qareach, and SeraYahuw the son of Tanchumeth, and the sons of Owphay the Netophathiy, and YezanYahuw the son of the Ma'akathiy, they and their men.


Yishma’el means “Aluahiym has heard.” Yahuwchanan means “Yahuwah has shown favor”. Yonathan means “Yahuwah has given.” SeraYahuw means “Yahuwah has contended”. Eufei means “gloomy”. YezanYahuw (if a shortened form of YaazanYahuw) means “Yahuwah has given ear”.


40:9 GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam the son of Shaphan swore to them and to their men, saying, Don’t be afraid to serve the Kasdiy: dwell in the Land, and serve the sovereign of Babel, and it shall be well with you. 40:10 As for me, behold, I shall dwell at Mitspah, to stand before the Kasdiy who shall come to us: but you, gather wine and summer fruits and oil, and put them in your vessels, and dwell in your cities that you have taken.  40:11 Likewise when all the Yahuwdim who were in Mow'ab, and among the children of Ammowniy, and in Edom, and who were in all the countries, heard that the sovereign of Babel had left a remnant of Yahuwdah, and that he had set over them GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam, the son of Shaphan;  40:12 then all the Yahuwdim returned out of all places where they were driven, and came to the land of Yahuwdah, to GedalYahuw, to Mitspah, and gathered wine and summer fruits very much.


The land had had its rest during the siege because many had fled to Yahrushalom for refuge from the enemies. (35:11) So now it was producing in abundance. After a much longer exile, the Land of Ysra'al is again becoming very fruitful on many levels. It looked as if things were not so bad for those still in the Land.


40:13 Moreover Yowchanan the son of Qareach, and all the captains of the forces who were in the fields, came to GedalYahuw to Mitspah, 40:14 and said to him, Do you know that Ba'alis the sovereign of the children of Ammowniy has sent Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw to take your life? But GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam didn’t believe them. 40:15 Then Yowchanan the son of Qareach spoke to GedalYahuw in Mitspah secretly, saying, Please let me go, and I shall kill Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw, and no man shall know it: why should he take your life, that all the Yahuwdim who are gathered to you should be scattered, and the remnant of Yahuwdah perish?  40:16 But GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam said to Yowchanan the son of Qareach, You shall not do this thing; for you speak falsely of Yishma'el.


41:1 Now it happened in the seventh month, that Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw, the son of Eliyshama, of the seed royal and one of the chief officers of the sovereign, and ten men with him, came to GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam to Mitspah; and there they ate bread together in Mitspah.


 Having ten men with him, he is a picture of the Counterfeit Messiah. (Joseph Good)  it may be that the remainder of the scenario in this chapter may also have prophetic significance in the coming days.


41:2 Then arose Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw, and the ten men who were with him, and struck GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam the son of Shaphan with the sword, and killed him, whom the sovereign of Babel had made governor over the land.

A fast is held each year in Gedalyahu’s memory to this day. Ten men: symbolic of an entire congregation, so perhaps these portray the religious Muslims who perpetrate suicide bombings. ... the ten nations of Ps. 83!


 41:3 Yishma'el also killed all the Yahuwdim who were with him, to wit, with GedalYahuw, at Mitspah, and the Kasdiy who were found there, the men of war. 41:4 It happened the second day after he had killed GedalYahuw, and no man knew it, 41:5 that there came men from Shekem, from Shiyloh, and from Shomerown, even eighty men, having their beards shaved and their clothes torn, and agitated, with meal offerings and frankincense in their hand, to bring them to the House of YaHuWaH. 


Beards shaven: a sign of deep mourning. Cutting themselves: Aramaic, mutilating. They were not completely familiar with the Torah’s commands, but they appear to have been headed for a Yom Kippur service at the Temple, perhaps not yet knowing it had been destroyed. Or perhaps they wished to mourn its loss on its former site. Yet all of these men were from the Northern Kingdom’s territory, so they probably represent Christians who want to worship Yahuwah, yet are used to worshipping in a pagan manner, since they are not taught the right way. A tribute: LXX, manna.


41:6  Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw went forth from Mitspah to meet them, weeping all along as he went: and it happened, as he met them, he said to them, Come to GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam. 41:7 It was so, when they came into the midst of the city, that Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw killed them, and cast them into the midst of the pit, he, and the men who were with him. 


The Muslims claim that after they kill the “Saturday people” (v. 3), they will then kill the “Sunday people”.


41:8 But ten men were found among those who said to Yishma'el, Don’t kill us; for we have stores hidden in the field, of wheat, and of barley, and of oil, and of honey. So he spared their lives, and didn’t kill them with their brothers.


Ten men: one congregation remained. Caches: much like the five virgins in YaHuWSHuWaH’s parable who had an extra reserve of oil. (Mat. 25)


 41:9 Now the cistern in which Yishma'el cast all the dead bodies of the men whom he had killed with GedalYahuw was the same one which Asa the sovereign had made for fear of Ba'asha sovereign of Ysra'al, that same pit that Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw filled with those who were killed. 


Because of the presence of Baasha: LXX, for fear of Ba'asha. As long as he and Asa were both on the throne, there was war between them. (1 Kings 15:16, 32) In fact, Mitzpah was built with the stones of the dismantled Ramah, which Ba'asha had built in order to stage a siege of Yahrushalom. (15:22) This cistern was for the purpose of maintaining a water supply in the city despite the siege, much like the spring-fed pool HizqiYahuw had built during the siege of Sennacheriv of Ashur. (2 Chron. 32:30)


41:10 Then Yishma'el carried away captive all the rest of the people who were in Mitspah, even the king’s daughters, and all the people who remained in Mitspah, whom Nebuwzaradan the captain of the guard had committed to GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam; Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw carried them away captive, and departed to cross over to the children of Ammowniy. 

41:11 But when Yowchanan the son of Qareach, and all the captains of the forces who were with him, heard of all the evil that Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw had done, 41:12  they took all the men, and went to fight with Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw, and found him by the great waters that are in Gib'own. 


Gib’on is only a few miles north of Yahrushalom, near the well-known modern Arab city of Ramallah. It is where King Shlomo had asked Yahuwah for wisdom when Yahuwah had offered him whatever he wanted.


41:13 Now it happened that, when all the people who were with Yishma'el saw Yowchanan the son of Qareach, and all the captains of the forces who were with him, then they rejoiced . 41:14 So all the people who Yishma'el had carried away captive from Mitspah turned about and came back, and went to Yowchanan the son of Qareach. 41:15 But Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw escaped from Yowchanan with eight men, and went to the children of Ammowniy.


He thus lost two of his captains.


  41:16 Then took Yowchanan the son of Qareach, and all the captains of the forces who were with him, all the remnant of the people whom he had recovered from Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw, from Mitspah, after that he had killed GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam, to wit, the men of war, and the women, and the children, and the eunuchs, whom he had brought back from Gib'own: 41:17 and they departed, and stayed at the inn Kimham, which is by Bayith Lechem, to go to enter into Mitsrayim, 


Kimoham means “awaiting with longing”. Perhaps this was the inn that had no room when YaHuWSHuWaH was about to be born. Though they were in a place of longing and so close to the “place of bread” (Beyth-Lekhem), they still were seeking their protection from a place Yahuwah had forbidden Ysra'al to go to for protection. (Deut. 17:16)


41:18 because of the Kasdiy; for they were afraid of them, because Yishma'el the son of NethanYahuw had killed GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam, whom the sovereign of Babel made governor over the land.



42:1 Then all the captains of the forces, and Yowchanan the son of Qareach, and YezanYahuw the son of HowshaYahuw, and all the people from the least even to the greatest, came near, 42:2 and said to YirmeYahuw the prophet, Let, we pray you, our supplication be presented before you, and pray for us to YaHuWaH your Aluahiym, even for all this remnant; for we are left but a few of many, as your eyes do see us: 


Pray for us: from a root word meaning “behind”; i.e., backing us up with added support. Your Aluahiym: They did not see Him as their own Aluahiym. We are so few: Aram./LXX, few out of [what were] many.


 42:3 that YaHuWaH your Aluahiym may show us the way in which we should walk, and the thing that we should do.


Walk: also an idiom for “conduct our lives”. But as we will see, after what had just taken place, they felt unsafe where they were, and wished to go elsewhere.


 42:4 Then YirmeYahuw the prophet said to them, I have heard you; behold, I shall pray to YaHuWaH your Aluahiym according to your words; and it shall happen that whatever thing YaHuWaH shall answer you, I shall declare it to you; I shall keep nothing back from you.


Your Aluahiym: YirmeYahuw turns their words back upon them and affirms that He is their Aluahiym as well, if indeed they wish to know His will.


 42:5 Then they said to YirmeYahuw, YaHuWaH be a true and faithful witness among us, if we don’t do according to all the word with which YaHuWaH your Aluahiym shall send you to us. 42:6 Whether it be good, or whether it be evil, we shall obey the Voice of YaHuWaH our Aluahiym, to whom we send you; that it may be well with us, when we obey the Voice of YaHuWaH our Aluahiym.


This is what the whole nation of Ysra'al told Moshah (Ex. 19:8) and Yahushua. (Yahush. 1;17; 24:24)


42:7 It happened after ten days, that the Word of YaHuWaH came to YirmeYahuw. 


[The fast of GedalYahuw (41:1-3) falls on the third of the seventh month, and Yishma’el’s massacre was two days later (41:4), so we have reached the fifteenth of the month, which is the first day of the feast of Sukkoth. They may have even fasted on Yom Kippur in the intervening period in order to wait on YaHuWaH’s answer.]


42:8 Then called he Yowchanan the son of Qareach, and all the captains of the forces who were with him, and all the people from the least even to the greatest, 42:9 and said to them, Thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, to whom you sent me to present your supplication before him: 42:10 If you shall still abide in this Land, then shall I build you, and not pull you down, and I shall plant you, and not pluck you up; for I have relented of the evil that I have brought on you.


They asked where they should walk, but He told them to stay where they, as Ysra'al, belonged. This is one of the themes of Sukkoth. Establish: or build—another theme of the festival of Sukkoth, which began on this day. Plant you: Sukkoth is a festival that celebrates and thanks YaHuWaH for the harvest. During it, rain for the next growing season is requested.


 42:11 Don’t be afraid of the sovereign of Babel, of whom you are afraid; don’t be afraid of him, says YaHuWaH: for I am with you to save you, and to deliver you from his hand. 42:12 I shall grant you mercy, that he may have mercy on you, and cause you to return to your own Land.


Since He has brought them under Babel’s rule as a punishment, He instructs them to go with this flow and not resist—to pay their taxes and suffer the economic consequences of their sin, and He will have mercy. But they must not go back to the religious system from which He delivered them.


 42:13 But if you say, We shall not dwell in this Land; so that you don’t obey the Voice of YaHuWaH your Aluahiym, 42:14 saying, No; but we shall go into the land of Mitsrayim, where we shall see no war, nor hear the sound of the shofar, nor have hunger of bread; and there shall we dwell: 


Sound of the shofar: a warning of an impending attack, and a call to arms. Mitsrayim would have ulterior motives in welcoming them there, as it proved once before. And the church, which Mitsrayim often represents, though it still holds many Ysra'alites hostage, is not Ysra'al’s ally. While it rejoices to see Yahuwdah back in the Land because of prophecy, it forecasts its own exemption from the coming trouble but judgment for the Jews unless they join its ranks. It is not a true protection from the economic system that threatens to enslave us (for the Beast will turn on the harlot, Rev. 17:16.) ; living out our role as Ysra'al is. Yahuwah constantly warns against looking to Mitsrayim as our security rather than to Him.


42:15 now therefore hear the Word of YaHuWaH, O remnant of Yahuwdah: Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, If you indeed set your faces to enter into Mitsrayim, and go to sojourn there; 42:16 then it shall happen, that the sword, which you fear, shall overtake you there in the land of Mitsrayim; and the famine, about which you are afraid, shall follow close behind you there in Mitsrayim; and there you shall die.

 42:17 So shall it be with all the men who set their faces to go into Mitsrayim to sojourn there: they shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence; and none of them shall remain or escape from the evil that I shall bring on them. 42:18 For thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: As My anger and My wrath has been poured forth on the inhabitants of Yahrushalom, so shall My wrath be poured forth on you, when you shall enter into Mitsrayim; and you shall be an object of horror, and an astonishment, and a curse, and a reproach; and you shall see this place no more. 42:19 YaHuWaH has spoken concerning you, remnant of Yahuwdah, Don’t you go into Mitsrayim: know certainly that I have testified to you this day. 42:20 For you have dealt deceitfully against your own beings; for you sent me to YaHuWaH your Aluahiym, saying, Pray for us to YaHuWaH our Aluahiym; and according to all that YaHuWaH our Aluahiym shall say, so declare to us, and we shall do it: 42:21 and I have this day declared it to you; but you have not obeyed the Voice of YaHuWaH your Aluahiym in anything for which He has sent me to you. 42:22 Now therefore know certainly that you shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence, in the place where you desire to go to sojourn there.   This is the sentence for asking a priest for a ruling, then not carrying it out. (Deut. 17:9-12)



43:1 It happened that, when YirmeYahuw had made an end of speaking to all the people all the Words of YaHuWaH their Aluahiym, with which YaHuWaH their Aluahiym had sent him to them, even all these words, 43:2 then spoke AzarYahuw the son of HowshaYahuw, and Yowchanan the son of Qareach, and all the arrogant men, saying to YirmeYahuw, You speak falsely: YaHuWaH our Aluahiym has not sent you to say, You shall not go into Mitsrayim to sojourn there;


They had fooled themselves into thinking they would do the right thing if YaHuWaH only told them what it was (42:20), but they were already convinced that they knew what that “right thing” was, and when His actual word did not line up with that, they assumed Yirmeyahuw was being pressured to say what he said:

 43:3 but Baruwk the son of NeriYahuw sets you on against us, to deliver us into the hand of the Kasdiy, that they may put us to death, and carry us away captive to Babel. 


Barukh was from a very influential family, and these leaders resented it, accusing him of being the one putting YirmeYahuw up to this perceived evil.


43:4 So Yowchanan the son of Qareach, and all the captains of the forces, and all the people, didn’t obey the Voice of YaHuWaH, to dwell in the land of Yahuwdah. 43:5 But Yowchanan the son of Qareach, and all the captains of the forces, took all the remnant of Yahuwdah, who were returned from all the nations where they had been driven, to sojourn in the land of Yahuwdah; 43:6 the men, and the women, and the children, and the king’s daughters, and every person who Nebuwzaradan the captain of the guard had left with GedalYahuw the son of Achiyqam, the son of Shaphan; and YirmeYahuw the prophet, and Baruwk the son of NeriYahuw;


  Yirmeyahuw and Barukh, the only innocent ones in the situation, were taken along as hostages.


 43:7 and they came into the land of Mitsrayim; for they didn’t obey the Voice of YaHuWaH: and they came to Tachpanches.


 43:8 Then came the Word of YaHuWaH to YirmeYahuw in Tachpanches, saying,  43:9 Take large stones in your hand, and hide them in mortar in the brick kiln, which is at the entry of Par'oh's house in Tachpanches, in the sight of the men of Yahuwdah; 43:10 and tell them, Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Behold, I shall send and take Nebuwkadne'tstsar the sovereign of Babel, My servant, and shall set his throne on these stones that I have hidden; and he shall spread his adorning canopy over them.


Adorning canopy: a decorative shade over the royal throne. Aramaic, footstool. Yirmeyahuw hid cornerstones for Nevukhadretzar’s throne-room under the bricks in Pharaoh’s courtyard. When Nevukhadretzar would come and strip away the courtyard, they would be revealed.


  43:11 He shall come, and shall strike the land of Mitsrayim; such as are for death shall be given to death, and such as are for captivity to captivity, and such as are for the sword to the sword. 


If Yahuwah has marked you, you cannot escape no matter where you go, as Yonah learned!


43:12 He shall kindle a fire in the houses of the mighty ones of Mitsrayim; and he shall burn them, and carry them away captive: and he shall array himself with the land of Mitsrayim, as a shepherd puts on his garment; and he shall go forth from there in peace.


Envelop: or, forcibly grasp; LXX, search. Unharmed: or, in peace, i.e., unscathed. The house of the gods of Mitsrayim: the Church as it has become, co-opting the symbols that once belonged to Ysra'al and making them subservient to pagan agendas.


43:13 He shall also break the upright stones of Bayith Shemesh, that is in the land of Mitsrayim; and the houses of the mighty ones of Mitsrayim shall he burn with fire.


Upright stones: pagan cultic pillars that were often phallic symbols; probably obelisks in the case of Egypt. House of the Sun: LXX, the pillars of Heliopolis which are in On. But the steeples of the “houses of Sun-day worship” are the successors to these “upright stones”.


44:1 The Word that came to YirmeYahuw concerning all the Yahuwdim who lived in the land of Mitsrayim, who lived at Migdowl, and at Tachpanches, and at Noph, and in the country of Pathrows, saying, 44:2 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: You have seen all the evil that I have brought on Yahrushalom, and on all the cities of Yahuwdah; and behold, this day they are a desolation, and no man dwells therein, 44:3 because of their wickedness which they have committed to provoke Me to anger, in that they went to burn incense, and to serve other mighty ones, that they didn’t know, neither they, nor you, nor your fathers. 44:4 However I sent to you all My servants the prophets, rising up early and sending them, saying, Oh, don’t do this abominable thing that I hate. 44:5 But they didn’t listen, nor inclined their ear to turn from their wickedness, to burn no incense to other mighty ones. 44:6 Therefore My wrath and My anger was poured forth, and was kindled in the cities of Yahuwdah and in the streets of Yahrushalom; and they are wasted and desolate, as it is this day. 44:7 Therefore now thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Why do you commit great evil against your own beings, to cut off from yourselves man and woman, infant and suckling, out of the midst of Yahuwdah, to leave yourselves none remaining;  44:8 in that you provoke Me to anger with the works of your hands, burning incense to other mighty ones in the land of Mitsrayim, where you have gone to sojourn; that you may be cut off, and that you may be a curse and a reproach among all the nations of the earth? 44:9 Have you forgotten the wickedness of your fathers, and the wickedness of the sovereigns of Yahuwdah, and the wickedness of their wives, and your own wickedness, and the wickedness of your wives which they committed in the land of Yahuwdah, and in the streets of Yahrushalom? 


His wives: probably King Shlomo’s in particular, since it was they who first started the pattern of bringing in pagan customs.


44:10 They are not humbled even to this day, neither have they feared, nor walked in My Torah, nor in My statutes, that I set before you and before your fathers. 44:11 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Here I am setting My Face against you for evil, even to cut off all Yahuwdah. 

[Setting my face: an idiom for being resolved to go through with something no matter what. ..... as YaHuWSHuWaH did on His way to the stake.] 


  44:12 I shall take the remnant of Yahuwdah, that have set their faces to go into the land of Mitsrayim to sojourn there, and they shall all be consumed; in the land of Mitsrayim [Troubles] shall they fall; they shall be consumed by the sword and by the famine; they shall die, from the least even to the greatest, by the sword and by the famine; and they shall be an object of horror, and an astonishment, and a curse, and a reproach.  44:13 For I shall punish those who dwell in the land of Mitsrayim, as I have punished Yahrushalom, by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence;  44:14 so that none of the remnant of Yahuwdah, who have gone into the land of Mitsrayim to sojourn there, shall escape or be left, to return into the Land of Yahuwdah, to which they have a desire to return to dwell there: for none shall return save such as shall escape.  


44:15 Then all the men who knew that their wives burned incense to other mighty ones, and all the women who stood by, a great assembly, even all the people who lived in the land of Mitsrayim, in Pathrows, answered YirmeYahuw, saying, 44:16 As for the word that you have spoken to us in the Name of YaHuWaH, we shall not listen to you.


 [ All the people: that is, those of the people of Yahuwdah. Their wives: Women were priestesses of this cult, as was later a common custom among Greek and Roman temples. Most oracles were women, and this was the context for Sha'ul’s limitations on women. Women had now become responsible for Yahuwdah’s ruwach feelings, for they are more ruwachually sensitive than men, and where men do not lead, women will fill the void, taking things into their own hands like Chuwah. But they lean to the side of compassion over judgment, and therefore are not always as discerning of evil inroads. (See Yehezqel 8:14) A goddess seems more giving than a judging Aluahiym who sometimes wages war. Yet since YaHuWaH pronounced the sentences against Adam and Chuwah, when women rule over men, it causes the nation to err. (YashaYahuw 3:11) As in the case of Vashti (Esther 1), the Anointed’s bride is now claiming to know better than He, though He has already made a ruling on the issues where she wants the policy changed. Her usurper is known as “mother Church”.


44:17 But we shall certainly perform every word that is gone forth out of our mouth, to burn incense to the Queen of Heaven, and to pour out drink offerings to her, as we have done, we and our fathers, our sovereigns and our princes, in the cities of Yahuwdah, and in the streets of Yahrushalom; for then we had plenty of food, and were well, and saw no evil. 


[Queen of Heaven: Thus they were under Babel's influence anyway. This is the goddess which was confused with the virgin Mary after Constantine tried to merge all the religions in his empire into one. In fact, only a few years ago Mary was officially recognized by Rome as being the Queen of Heaven. This in itself should be enough warning to disentangle oneself from any of her influence. This goddess held special appeal for women, and we are seeing the same trend toward goddess-worship today.]


44:18 But since we quit burning incense to the Queen of Heaven, and pouring out drink offerings to her, we have wanted all things, and have been consumed by the sword and by the famine. 44:19 When we burned incense to the Queen of Heaven, and poured out drink offerings to her, did we make her cakes to worship her, and pour out drink offerings to her, without our husbands permission?


I.e., did they do any of this without their husbands’ knowledge or permission? Cakes in her shape: Recently a cake mold was found at Mari (a Mesopotamian city with linguistic connections to Hebrew) in the shape of a nude woman making a sensual gesture, identified by archaeologists as being dedicated to the Queen of Heaven.


44:20 Then YirmeYahuw said to all the people, to the men, and to the women, even to all the people who had given him an answer, saying, 44:21 The incense that you burned in the cities of Yahuwdah, and in the streets of Yahrushalom, you and your fathers, your sovereigns and your princes, and the people of the Land, didn’t YaHuWaH remember them, and didn’t it come into His mind?


People of the Land: an idiom for the common people.


44:22 so that YaHuWaH could no longer bear, because of the evil of your doings, and because of the abominations which you have committed; therefore your Land has become a desolation, and an astonishment, and a curse, without inhabitant, as it is this day.  44:23 Because you have burned incense, and because you have sinned against YaHuWaH, and have not obeyed the Voice of YaHuWaH, nor walked in His Torah, nor in His statutes, nor in His testimonies; therefore this evil has happened to you, as it is this day.


Repeated warnings: or testimonies. This was the correct explanation for why things had stopped going well for them; it had nothing to do with them stopping their slaughterers to the Queen of Heaven.


 44:24 Moreover YirmeYahuw said to all the people, and to all the women, Hear the Word of YaHuWaH, all Yahuwdah who are in the land of Mitsrayim: 44:25 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, saying, You and your wives have been  promising with your mouths, and with your hands have fulfilled it, saying, We shall surely perform our vows that we have vowed, to burn incense to the Queen of Heaven, and to pour out drink offerings to her: You certainly have been making your vows binding, and have indeed carried out your vows. 44:26 Therefore hear the Word of YaHuWaH, all Yahuwdah who dwell in the land of Mitsrayim: Behold, I have sworn by My great Name, says YaHuWaH, that My Name shall no more be named in the mouth of any man of Yahuwdah in all the land of Mitsrayim, saying, As the Master YaHuWaH lives.


He will punish those who are outside His will, yet still flippantly call on His Name. Yet when we left our “Mitsrayim”, His Name was again revealed to us and He has allowed us to begin using it again.


44:27 Behold, I watch over them for evil, and not for good; and all the men of Yahuwdah who are in the land of Mitsrayim shall be consumed by the sword and by the famine, until there be an end of them. 44:28 Those who escape the sword shall return out of the land of Mitsrayim into the Land of Yahuwdah, few in number; and all the remnant of Yahuwdah, who have gone into the land of Mitsrayim to sojourn there, shall know whose word shall stand, Mine, or theirs. 44:29 This shall be the sign to you, says YaHuWaH, that I shall punish you in this place, that you may know that My Words shall surely stand against you for evil:  44:30 Thus says YaHuWaH, Behold, I shall give Par'oh [Hafra/the Lame] sovereign of Mitsrayim into the hand of his enemies, and into the hand of those who seek his life; as I gave TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah into the hand of Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel, who was his enemy, and sought his life.



[Flashback chronologically]

45:1 The message that YirmeYahuw the prophet spoke to Baruwk the son of NeriYahuw, when he wrote these words in a book at the mouth of YirmeYahuw, in the fourth year of Yahuwyaqim the son of YoshiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah, saying,  


[This is a flashback chronologically. Yahuwyaqim had taxed Yahuwdah to pay tribute to Egypt (2 Kings 23:35), which may be why the people of Yahuwdah now expected to find refuge in that land. Nevukhadnetzar made Yahuwdah a vassal state, then after three years Yahuwyaqim rebelled against him. Perhaps this was the fourth year Yirmeyahuw mentions here, because 2 Kings 24 tells us that at this time YaHuWaH brought on Yahuwdah the destruction the prophets had foretold.] 


 45:2 Thus says YaHuWaH, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, to you, Baruwk: 45:3 You said, Woe is me now! for YaHuWaH has added sorrow to my pain; I am weary with my groaning, and I find no rest. 45:4 You shall tell him, Thus says YaHuWaH: Behold, that which I have built shall I break down, and that which I have planted I shall pluck up; and this in the whole land. 45:5 Do you seek better things for yourself? Don’t ask for them; for, behold, I shall bring evil on all flesh, says YaHuWaH; but your life shall I give to you for a prize in all places where you go.


I.e., everyone is going to suffer during this time, even those who were wealthy and influential, and even those who have been obedient. He should not expect to be exempt, but Yahuwah did reward him for siding with YirmeYahuw, telling him that no matter what happened to him, he would not be killed, and that was one less thing to be concerned about. The fullness of wrath would not fall on him. He should be thankful for this, because such a promise was not given to many of his close relatives. In the coming years great devastation will come upon the whole world (greater than ever before), and we should not expect to escape it completely. But for those “called according to His purposes” who keep following Him and reject the Babelian system, He has promised both a reward and a place in YaHuWSHuWaH’s Kingdom.



46:1 The Word of YaHuWaH which came to YirmeYahuw the prophet concerning the nations.


LXX, At the beginning of the reign of TzidqiYahuw, there came this word concerning Elam.


 46:2 Of Mitsrayim: concerning the army of Par'oh Nekow sovereign of Mitsrayim, which was by the river Perath in Karkemish, which Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel struck in the fourth year of Yahuwyaqim the son of YoshiYahuw, sovereign of Yahuwdah. 46:3 Prepare the seige-buckler and shield, and draw near to battle!


Siege-buckler: a shield large enough to hide behind if being shot at from a city wall.


 46:4 Harness the horses, and get up, you horsemen, and stand forth with your helmets; furbish the spears, put on the coats of mail. 46:5 Why have I seen it? They are dismayed and are turned backward; and their  mighty ones are beaten down, and have fled apace, and don’t look back: terror is on every side, says YaHuWaH.   Don’t let the swift flee away, nor the mighty man escape; in the north by the river Perath have they stumbled and fallen.


Natural advantages have no bearing on the outcome when Yahuwah decides what is to be.


46:7 Who is this who rises up like the Nile, whose waters toss themselves like the rivers? 46:8 Mitsrayim rises up like the Nile, and his waters toss themselves like the rivers: and he says, I shall rise up, I shall cover the earth; I shall destroy cities and its inhabitants. 46:9 Go up, you horses; and rage, you chariots; and let the mighty men go forth: Kuwsh and Puwt [Ethiopia] who handle the shield; and the Ludiym [Libya], who handle and bend the bow.


Kush and Put: inhabitants of what are now Ethiopia and Libya. Ludites: a Semitic people that inhabited north Africa.


 46:10 For that Day is a Day of the Master, YaHuWaH of Armies, a Day of vengeance, that He may avenge Him of His adversaries: and the sword shall devour and be satiate, and shall drink its fill of their blood; for the Master, YaHuWaH of Armies, has a slaughter in the north country by the river Perath.  46:11 Go up into Gil'ad, and take balm, virgin daughter of Mitsrayim: in vain do you use many medicines; there is no healing for you. 


I.e., even if you obtain the best medicines, they will not serve your purpose. Yahuwah is somewhat sarcastic here, daring them to try their best to get around His judgment.


46:12 The nations have heard of your shame, and the earth is full of your cry; for the mighty man has stumbled against the mighty, they are fallen both of them together.


He is prophesying about Mitsrayim, but speaking to Ysra'al, so that when Yahuwah does what He says, they will have evidence that He is in control.


46:13 The Word that YaHuWaH spoke to YirmeYahuw the prophet, how that Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel should come and strike the land of Mitsrayim. 46:14 Declare in Mitsrayim, and publish in Migdowl, and publish in Noph and in Tachpanches: say, Stand forth, and prepare; for the sword has devoured around you. 46:15 Why are your mighty ones swept away? they didn’t stand, because YaHuWaH did drive them. 


Your might man: LXX, Apis (the bull-god of Mitsrayim).


46:16 He made many to stumble, yes, they fell one on another: and they said, Arise, and let us go again to our own people, and to the land of our birth, from the oppressing sword.  46:17 They cried there, Par'oh sovereign of Mitsrayim is but a noise; he has let the appointed time pass by. 


I.e., is past his prime; he is no longer “a man whose time has come”. He is no longer a threat.


 46:18 As I live, says the Master, Whose Name is YaHuWaH of Armies, surely like Tabowr among the mountains, and like Karmel by the sea, so shall he come. 46:19 You daughter who dwells in Mitsrayim, furnish yourself to go into captivity; for Noph shall become a desolation, and shall be burnt up, without inhabitant. 46:20 Mitsrayim is a very beautiful heifer; but a stinging insect has come out of the north.  46:21 Also her hired men in the midst of her are like calves of the stall; for they also are turned back, they are fled away together, they didn’t stand: for the day of their calamity is come on them, the time of their visitation. 46:22 The sound of it shall go like the serpent; for they shall march with an army, and come against her with axes, as wood cutters. 46:23 They shall cut down her forest, says YaHuWaH, though it can’t be searched; because they are more than the locusts, and are innumerable. 46:24 The daughter of Mitsrayim has dried up; she shall be delivered into the hand of the people of the north.


Dried up: or become ashamed. Yahuwah has to kill His wife’s illegitimate lover as well as punishing His wife. He is a jealous Aluahiym. (Ex. 20:5) This is the second time the Mitsrayimians came against Babel.


 46:25 YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al, says: Behold, I shall punish Amown of No, and Pharaoh, and Mitsrayim, with her mighty ones, and her sovereigns; even Pharaoh, and those who trust in him:


Amun-No: an Mitsrayim god, whose name means The chief architect of Thebes: Heb., Amun-No. Amun was the name of one of the gods of Mitsrayim, and No means “disruption”.


 46:26 and I shall deliver them into the hand of those who seek their lives, and into the hand of Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel, and into the hand of his servants; and afterwards it shall be inhabited, as in the days of old, says YaHuWaH.  46:27  But don’t you be afraid, Ya'aqob My servant, neither be dismayed, Ysra'al: for, behold, I shall save you from afar, and your seed from the land of their captivity; and Ya'aqob shall return, and shall be quiet and at ease, and none shall make him afraid.


My servant Ya'aqob: not a blanket endorsement for anyone who is his physical descendant, but those of them who serve Him as Ya'aqob did.


 46:28 Don’t you be afraid, O Ya'aqob My servant, says YaHuWaH; for I am with you: for I shall make a full end of all the nations where I have driven you; but I shall not make a full end of you, but I shall correct you justly, and shall in no way leave you unpunished.



47:1 The Word of YaHuWaH that came to YirmeYahuw the prophet concerning the Pelishtiym, before Par'oh struck Azzah.


Azzah: known in English as Gaza, due to a Greek transliteration.


 47:2 Thus says YaHuWaH: Behold, waters rise up out of the north, and shall become an overflowing stream, and shall overflow the land and all that is therein, the city and those who dwell therein; and the men shall cry, and all the inhabitants of the land shall wail. 


Waters: Though Philistia is on the seacoast, this is idiomatic of an army sweeping in like a flood, especially since it is sweeping in from the north, not the west (the word for which means “sea-ward” in Hebrew.


47:3 At the noise of the stamping of the hoofs of his strong ones, at the rushing of his chariots, at the rumbling of his wheels, the fathers don’t look back to their children for feebleness of hands; 47:4 because of the day that comes to destroy all the Pelishtiym, to cut off from Tsor and Tsiydown every helper who remains: for YaHuWaH shall destroy the Pelishtiym, the remnant of the isle of Kaphtor. 


Kaftor: the original home of the Philistines, probably Crete. Tzur and Tzidon: powerful “Phoenician” cities on on the coast of modern-day Lebanon. Every support: LXX, all their allies. Havoc is being wrought on the whole Land and the whole earth because of what Ysra'al has done wrong. How significant is our every act when He has put us in a position of being a light to all nations.


47:5 Baldness is come on Azzah; Ashqelon is brought to nothing, the remnant of their valley: how long shall you cut yourself? 47:6 You sword of YaHuWaH, how long shall it be before you be quiet? Put up yourself into your scabbard; rest, and be still. 47:7 How can you be quiet, seeing YaHuWaH has given you a command? Against Ashqelon, and against the seashore, there has He appointed it.


48:1 Of Mow'ab. Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Woe to Nebow! for it is laid waste; Qiriathayim is disappointed, it is taken; Misgab is put to shame and broken down.


Moab: the tribal land of one of Lot’s sons, across the Yarden River from Yahrushalom. Nebo: A city in Moab named for a Babelian deity. Qiryathayim means “a pair of towns”.


48:2 The praise of Mow'ab is no more; in Cheshbown they have devised evil against her: Come, and let us cut her off from being a nation. You also, Madmen (a place), shall be brought to silence: the sword shall pursue you. 


Madmen: a city whose name means “place of the dunghill”. Many other towns in Moab are mentioned throughout this chapter.


48:3 The sound of a cry from Choronayim, desolation and great destruction! 


Khoronayim: a town whose name means “a pair of great caves”.


48:4 Mow'ab is destroyed; her little ones have caused a cry to be heard. 48:5 For by the ascent of Luwchiyth with continual weeping shall they go up; for at the descent of Choronayim they have heard the distress of the cry of destruction. 48:6 Flee, save your lives, and be like a bare tree in the wilderness. 48:7 For, because you have trusted in your works and in your treasures, you also shall be taken: and Kemowsh shall go forth into captivity, his priests and his princes together.


Because: The reason for all these punishments. Verse 27 gives another reason. Khemosh: the national deity of Moab, whose name meant “subduer”. Yahuwah was ousting him, too!


48:8 The destroyer shall come on every city, and no city shall escape; the valley also shall perish, and the plateau shall be destroyed; as YaHuWaH has spoken. (this speaks of a major supernatural event from YaHuWaH!)


The plateau: most of Mow'ab which lies above the cliffs of the Great Rift Valley which drop off sharply to the west. The valley: possibly the Great Rift Valley, through which the Yarden River flows.


8:9 Give wings to Mow'ab, that she may fly and get her away: and her cities shall become a desolation, without any to dwell therein.


LXX, Set marks on Moab, for she will be touched by a plague-spot.


48:10 Cursed is he who does the work of YaHuWaH negligently; and cursed is he who keeps back his sword from blood.


Carelessly: or, deceitfully, with treachery. The LXX equates the two phrases in this curse. Perhaps this refers to Ysra'al’s responsibility to correct her cousin Moab for her errors, since Moab’s ancestor Lot had, after all, been Abraham’s nephew and learned about Yahuwah from him, but turned aside to another Aluahiym.


48:11 Mow'ab has been at ease from his youth, and he has settled on his lees, and has not been emptied from vessel to vessel, (that is, he has not gone into exile), therefore his taste remains in him, and his scent is not changed. [wine-making terminology] 48:12 Therefore, behold, the days come, says YaHuWaH, that I shall send to him those who pour off, and they shall pour him off; and they shall empty his vessels, and break their bottles in pieces.


 LXX: I will send him bad leaders, and they will lead him astray.


48:13 Mow'ab shall be ashamed of Kemowsh, as the house of Ysra'al was ashamed of Bayith'el [house of god], in which they trusted. 48:14 How do you say, We are mighty men, and valiant men for the war? 48:15 Mow'ab is laid waste, and they are gone up into his cities, and his chosen young men are gone down to the slaughter, says the Master, Whose Name is YaHuWaH of Armies. 48:16 The calamity of Mow'ab is near to come, and his affliction hurries fast. 48:17 All you who are around him, bemoan him, and all you who know his name; say, How is the strong staff broken, the beautiful rod! 48:18 You daughter [Daughter: when referring to a city, it means one of the villages or hills surrounding it.] who dwells in Diybown, come down from your place of importance, and sit in thirst; for the destroyer of Mow'ab has come up against you, he has destroyed your strongholds. 48:19 Inhabitant of Arow'er, stand by the way, and watch: ask him who flees, and her who escapes; say, What has been done? 48:20 Mow'ab is disappointed; for it is broken down: wail and cry; tell it by the Arnown, that Mow'ab is laid waste. 48:21 Judgment is come on the plain country, on Cholown, and on Yahats, and on Mowpha'ath, 


Kholon means “place of whirling sand”. Yahats means “trodden down” and is the place where Ysra'al had defeated Sikhon, king of the Emorites. Meufa'ath means “splendid height”.


48:22 and on Dibown, and on Nebow, and on Bayith Diblathayim, 48:23 and on Qiriathayim, and on Bayith Gamul, and on Bayith Me'own,


Beyth-Gamul means “house of recompense”. Meon is a name of one of the Ba’als.


48:24 and on Qeriyowth, and on Botsrah, and on all the cities of the land of Mow'ab, far or near. 48:25 The horn of Mow'ab is cut off, and his arm is broken, says YaHuWaH.  Make him drunken; for he magnified himself against YaHuWaH: and Mow'ab shall wallow in his vomit, and he also shall be in derision. 48:27 For wasn’t Ysra'al a derision to you? was he found among thieves? for as often as you speak of him, you shake your head. 48:28 You inhabitants of Mow'ab, leave the cities, and dwell in the rock; and be like the dove that makes her nest over the mouth of the abyss.


The rock: Heb., sela, which, when used as a proper name, refers to Petra, a city south of Moab which indeed was built in the sides of cliffs.


48:29 We have heard of the pride of Mow'ab, that he is very proud; his loftiness, and his pride, and his arrogance, and the haughtiness of his heart.[Compare YashaYahuw 15-16 and Amos 2.] 48:30 I know his wrath, says YaHuWaH, that it is nothing; his boastings have worked nothing. 48:31 Therefore shall I wail for Mow'ab; yes, I shall cry out for all Mow'ab: for the men of Qiyr Heres shall they mourn. 48:32 With more than the weeping of Ya'azeyr shall I weep for you, vine of Sebam: your branches passed over the sea, they reached even to the sea of Ya'azeyr: on your summer fruits and on your vintage the destroyer is fallen. 48:33 Gladness and joy is taken away from the fruitful field and from the land of Mow'ab; and I have caused wine to cease from the wine presses: none shall tread with shouting [Heydad]! No, it will instead be Heydad!


[Heydad: a cheer shouted when treading grapes, but also a battle cry; YaHuWaH is saying that the latter is what will be heard instead of the former. (Compare Rev. 14:19; 19:15)]


48:34 From the cry of Cheshbown even to El'aleh, even to Yahats have they uttered their voice, from Tso'ar even to Choronayim  like a three year old heifer: for the waters of Nimriym also shall become desolate.


A heifer three years old: the prime time to be slaughtered. (cf. Numbers 19) She is as large as she will get, but her meat has not yet begun to toughen. Nimrim: meaning “limpid” or “pure”, a brook in Moab 10 miles (16 km) north of the Dead Sea and 3 miles (5 km) east of the Jordan.


 48:35 Moreover I shall cause to cease in Mow'ab, says YaHuWaH, him who offers in the high place, and him who burns incense to his mighty ones. 48:36 Therefore my heart sounds for Mow'ab like pipes, and my heart sounds like pipes for the men of Qiyr Heres: therefore the abundance that he has gotten is perished. 48:37 For every head is bald, and every beard clipped: on all the hands are cuttings, and on the waist sackcloth. 48:38 On all the housetops of Mow'ab and in its streets there is lamentation every where; for I have broken Mow'ab like a vessel in which none delights, says YaHuWaH.   How is it broken down! how do they wail! how has Mow'ab turned the back with shame! so shall Mow'ab become a derision and a terror to all who are around him. 48:40 For thus says YaHuWaH: Behold, he shall fly as an eagle, and shall spread out his wings against Mow'ab.  48:41 Qeriowth is taken, and the strongholds are seized, and the heart of the mighty men of Mow'ab at that day shall be as the heart of a woman in her pangs. 48:42-46 Mow'ab shall be destroyed from being a people, because he has magnified himself against YaHuWaH.  Fear, and the pit, and the snare, are on you, inhabitant of Mow'ab, says YaHuWaH. Terror, the pit, and the snare: a word-play in Hebrew, in which they are pronounced pakhad, pakhat, and pakh. He who flees from the fear shall fall into the pit; and he who gets up out of the pit shall be taken in the snare: for I shall bring on him, even on Mow'ab, the year of their visitation, says YaHuWaH.  Those who fled stand without strength under the shadow of Cheshbown; for a fire is gone forth out of Cheshbown, and a flame from the midst of Siychown, and has devoured the corner of Mow'ab, and the crown of the head of the tumultuous ones. 48:46 Woe to you, O Mow'ab! the people of Kemowsh is undone; for your sons are taken away captive, and your daughters into captivity. 48:47 Yet shall I bring back the captivity of Mow'ab in the lattermost days, says YaHuWaH. Thus far is the judgment of Mow'ab.


In the lattermost days: In the “time of the restoration of all things” (Acts 3:21), perhaps these ancient nations that descended from Abraham’s extended family will also be re-established as such. (See also 49:6, 39.)



49:1 Of the children of Ammowniy. [present day Jordan] Thus says YaHuWaH: Has Ysra'al no sons? has he no heir? why then does Malkam possess Gawd, and his people dwell in its cities?


Sons of Ammon: the descendants of Lot’s other son, Moab’s brother. The name of its capital, Rabbat-Ammon is still preserved in the name of Amman, the capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, which is on the same site. Malkham: means “their king”, but refers to a particular Ammonite idol also known as Molekh. Gad: its tribal land east of the Yarden River and west of the territory of the Ammonites, who were making incursions into it. Though at this time the northern kingdom had already been carried away captive, Yahuwah still considered it the land deeded to their descendants, and one day soon it will be claimed as such again.


 49:2 Therefore, behold, the days come, says YaHuWaH, that I shall cause an alarm of war to be heard against Rabbah of the children of Ammowniy; and it shall become a desolate tel, and her daughters [towns] shall be burned with fire: then shall Ysra'al possess those who did possess him, says YaHuWaH. 


Tel: a mound covering the remains of a ruined city. There are many who likewise would claim Ysra'al’s inheritance as their own, while Ysra'al, to whom it was promised, still remains. Yahuwah’s answer to this attitude is that Ysra'al will instead gain their inheritance!


49:3  Wail, Cheshbown, for Ay is laid waste; cry, you daughters of Rabbah, dress yourself in sackcloth: lament, and run back and forth among the fences; for Malkam shall go into captivity, his priests and his princes together. 49:4 Why do you honor in the valleys, your flowing valley, backsliding daughter? who trusted in her treasures, saying, Who shall come to me? 49:5 Behold, I shall bring a fear on you, says the Master, YaHuWaH of Armies, from all who are around you; and you shall be driven out every man right forth, and there shall be none to gather together the fugitives. 49:6 But afterward I shall bring back the captivity of the children of Ammowniy, says YaHuWaH.  Against Edom. Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies: Is wisdom no more in Teyman [Yemen of today]? is counsel perished from the prudent? is their wisdom vanished? 49:8 Flee, turn back, dwell in the depths, inhabitants of Dedan; for I shall bring the calamity of Esaw on him, the time that I shall visit him. 49:9 If grape gatherers came to you, would they not leave some gleaning grapes? if thieves by night, wouldn’t they destroy until they had enough?  49:10 But I have made Esaw bare, I have uncovered his secret places, and he shall not be able to hide himself: his seed is destroyed, and his brothers, and his neighbors; and he is no more. 49:11 Leave your father less children, I shall preserve them alive; and let your widows trust in me.  49:12 For thus says YaHuWaH: Behold, those whose judgment was not to drink of the cup shall certainly drink; and are you he who shall altogether go unpunished? You shall not go unpunished, but you shall surely drink. [Chp. 25]


Cup: often idiomatic for a severe ordeal (e.g., Mat. 26:39).


49:13 For I have sworn by myself, says YaHuWaH, that Botsrah shall become an astonishment, a reproach, a waste, and a curse; and all its cities shall be perpetual wastes.


[See also Obadyah for this same prophecy.]

 49:14 I have heard news from YaHuWaH, and an ambassador [distress] is sent among the heathen, saying, Gather yourselves together, and come against her, and rise up to the battle.


Ambassador: related to the Hebrew word for “distress”. (See note on v. 22.) This is a hint that this prophecy has a last days fulfillment as well as the immediate one in YirmeYahuw’s day.


49:15 For, behold, I have made you small among the nations, and despised among men.  49:16-17 As for your terror, the pride of your heart has deceived you, O you who dwell in the clefts of the rock, who hold the height of the hill: though you should make your nest as high as the eagle, I shall bring you down from there, says YaHuWaH.  

 Edom shall become an astonishment: everyone who passes by it shall be astonished, and shall hiss at all its plagues. 49:18 As in the overthrow of Sedom and Amorah and the neighbor cities of it, says YaHuWaH, no man shall dwell there, neither shall any son of man sojourn therein. 49:19 Behold, he shall come up like a lion from the pride of the Yarden against the permanent habitation: for I shall suddenly make them run away from it; and whoever is chosen, him shall I appoint over it: for who is like Me? and who shall appoint Me a time? and who is the shepherd who shall stand before Me? 49:20 Therefore hear the counsel of YaHuWaH, that He has taken against Edom; and His purposes, that He has purposed against the inhabitants of Teyman: Surely they shall drag them away, even the little ones of the flock; surely He shall make their habitation desolate over them. 49:21 The earth trembles at the noise of their fall; there is a cry, the noise which is heard in the Sea of Suf. 


The Reed Sea: its nearest point is some 60 miles from Petra, which is in the area Edom inhabited. Shaken: LXX, scared.


 49:22 Behold, He shall come up and fly as the eagle, and spread out His wings against Botsrah: and the heart of the mighty men of Edom in that Day shall be as the heart of a woman in her distress/ birth pangs. 


  Distress: sometimes the term refers to birth pangs (especially in the context of v. 24), and “in that day” signals a prophecy about the Messianic age. Thus this passage has an apocalyptic reference as well. Edom is considered the precursor of Rome, so we can surmise that it symbolizes either the Rome-based church system and/or the world empire that stems from the ancient Roman Empire, as described by Daniel.



 49:23 Concerning Dammeseq. [Syria] Chamath is confounded, and Arpad; for they have heard evil news, they are melted away: there is sorrow on the sea; it can’t be quiet.


The prophecy now turns to the Arameans (Syrians). Quiet down: LXX, rest.


49:24 Dammeseq has grown feeble, she turns herself to flee, and trembling has seized on her: anguish and sorrows have taken hold of her, as of a woman in travail.  49:25 How is the esteemed city ruined, the city My joy?  49:26 Therefore her young men shall fall in her streets, and all the men of war shall be brought to silence in that Day, says YaHuWaH Master of Armies. 

49:27 I shall kindle a fire in the wall of Dammeseq, and it shall devour the palaces of Ben-Hadad.  49:28 Of Qedar, and of the kingdoms of Chatsowr, which Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel struck. Thus says YaHuWaH: Arise, go up to Qedar (Al Qaeda?) , and destroy the children of the east. (Kadima)


Hatzor: the capital of 13 Kana'anite kingdoms which Yahushua had captured, and by far the largest ruined city in Ysra'al. After the northern kingdom had gone into captivity, however, it appears to have been claimed by Syria. Qedar: a nomadic people known for their black tents. (Song of Songs 1:5) Dominions of Hatzor: LXX, the queen of the palace.


49:29 Their tents and their flocks shall they take; they shall carry away for themselves their curtains, and all their vessels, and their camels; and they shall cry to them, Terror on every side! 49:30 Flee, wander far off, dwell in the depths, you inhabitants of Chatsowr, says YaHuWaH; for Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel has taken counsel against you, and has conceived a purpose against you. 49:31 Arise, go up to a nation that is at ease, that dwells without care, says YaHuWaH; that have neither gates nor bars, that dwell alone. 49:32 Their camels shall be a booty, and the multitude of their livestock a spoil: and I shall scatter to all winds those in the farthest corners and I shall bring their calamity from every side of them, says YaHuWaH.  Chatszowr shall be a dwelling place of jackals, a desolation forever: no man shall dwell there, neither shall any son of man sojourn therein.


 49:34 The word of YaHuWaH that came to YirmeYahuw the prophet concerning Eylam, in the beginning of the reign of TsidqiYahuw sovereign of Yahuwdah, saying, 49:35 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies: Behold, I shall break the bow of Eylam, the chief of their might. 49:36 On Eylam shall I bring the four winds from the four quarters of the sky, and shall scatter them toward all those winds; and there shall be no nation where the outcasts of Eylam shall not come. 49:37 I shall cause Eylam to be dismayed before their enemies, and before those who seek their life; and I shall bring evil on them, even My fierce anger, says YaHuWaH; and I shall send the sword after them, until I have consumed them; 49:38 and I shall set My throne in Eylam, and shall destroy from there sovereign and princes, says YaHuWaH.   But it shall happen in the latter days, that I shall bring back the captivity of Eylam, says YaHuWaH.


50:1 The Word that YaHuWaH spoke concerning Babel, concerning the land of the Kasdiy, by YirmeYahuw the prophet. 50:2 Declare among the nations and publish, and set up a banner; publish, and don’t conceal: say, Babel is taken, Bel is disappointed, Merodak is dismayed; her images are disappointed, her idols are broken in pieces! 


Babel (Babel) has several levels of meaning in Scripture. First, of course, it refers to the city on the plain of Shinar that is 65 miles southwest of Baghdad in present-day Iraq. Once a great empire, it was overtaken by the Medes and Persians, but never destroyed outright in the way that most of this chapter and the next describe. Therefore, we know there is a yet-to-be-fulfilled aspect to it, to which the present war in Iraq may or may not relate. On another level, Babel is seen throughout Scripture as a seat of rebellion against Yahuwah. M’rodakh itself (the name of one of Babel’s gods) means “your rebellion”. The local language’s way of saying Nimrod’s name was Nin-mirud, which relates to this theme of rebellion, because he was the one who initiated this effort, a theme that Greek mythology later took up as “pushing back the oppressively-low heavens”. The Tower of Babel was the salient example of trying to oust even Yahuwah from His throne. (See v. 24.) Also, the system exported from Babel, which has spread into every part of the world, has a strongly economic emphasis, as seen in Rev. 18. Its fall seems to stem from the event of the leaders of the world government throwing off all ties with the world religious system centered in Rome, of which many Protestant churches are also offshoots since they retained most of the practices added by Rome: e.g., Sunday worship, pagan-based holidays, and some theological emphases that are only marginal at best in Hebraic thought (Rev. 17-18:1). Bel: the Babelian pronunciation of Ba’al, which means “husband” or “lord”—a title preserved inadvertently even by modern Christianity. There were many middle eastern deities known as Ba’al, each being “lord” of this or that. One in particular, Ba’al-Gad, bears an eerie resemblance to the title “Lord God”, and specifically means “Lord of Fortune or Luck”—again, having a tie to the wish for financial security. (YashaYahuw 65:11.) Therefore Yahuwah is saying He will destroy the Aluahiym of both the literal and symbolic Babel.


50:3 For out of the north there comes up a nation against her, which shall make her land desolate, and none shall dwell therein: they are fled, they are gone, both man and animal.  50:4 In those Days, and in that Time, says YaHuWaH, the children of Ysra'al shall come, they and the children of Yahuwdah together; they shall go on their way weeping, and shall seek YaHuWaH their Aluahiym.


Note that both houses of Ysra'al are involved, and that at this point they will join back together.


 50:5 They shall ask the way to Tsiyown with their faces turned toward it, saying, Come, and join yourselves to YaHuWaH in an everlasting Covenant that shall not be forgotten.


Unlike the first, which was forgotten by the Northern Kingdom especially.


50:6 My people have become lost sheep: their shepherds have caused them to go astray; they have enticed them away into apostasy on the mountains; they have gone from mountain to hill; they have forgotten their resting place.


Lost sheep: This is what YaHuWSHuWaH was alluding to when He spoke of the “lost sheep of the House of Ysra'al”. (Mat. 15:24) But here it includes both houses of Ysra'al (v. 7). From mountain to hill: from the highest place to a lower one, but Deut. 12:2 includes the hills as places the Gentiles worshipped their gods. So this refers to a turning from Yahuwah into idolatry, but it was those who were intended to lead them in the worship of Yahuwah who were responsible for misleading them. Note that another way to say “shepherds” is “pastors”.


 50:7 All who found them have devoured them; and their adversaries said, We are not guilty, because they have sinned against YaHuWaH, the Habitation of righteousness, even YaHuWaH, the Expectation (purification pool) of their fathers: YaHuWaH! 


This excuse was heard over and over by every persecutor from the crusaders to the Nazis in reference to the tribe of Yahuwdah in particular.


50:8 Flee out of the midst of Babel, and go forth out of the land of the Kasdiy, and be as rams before the flocks.


Khasdim means either “clod-breakers” or “those who increase”. The latter seems to fit more with Babel’s theme of economic wealth, a system that thrives on the self-interest of its followers, unlike that of Ysra'al, which functions properly only when self-interest is made secondary to being a unified bride for Yahuwah. While we presently have to work within this system to some extent, our hearts must not be focused there, and one not-too-distant day we will be required to pull out of it completely, when it becomes impossible to buy or sell if we do not receive its mark on our bodies. (Rev. 13) Precursors to this are already in place on many levels, through identification numbers without which we cannot buy or sell either. Soon it will reach the limits of the rebellion Yahuwah allows it, its cup will tip over, and we will need to make an all-or-nothing decision for or against it. We must be preparing our hearts for that day even now, for that is where the battle will be fought. It will not come about instantaneously, because the command Yahuwah gives here is contingent on there being time to respond properly if we have the foresight to do so. Like Moshah and Aharon, forerunners of Ysra'al’s exodus from this system are already being called and trained to lead the rest out. Of course, the system will not be amused when it finds out how many there are whose chief loyalty is to Yahuwah and Ysra'al and not to it. But let the final outcome strengthen you against whatever part of its wrath you may feel first:


 50:9 For, behold, I shall stir up and cause to come up against Babel an assembly of great nations from the north country; and they shall set themselves in array against her; from there she shall be taken: their arrows [missiles?] shall be as of an expert mighty man; none shall return in vain.


Perhaps this suggests the “Arrow” missiles Israel possesses being used against Iraq.


50:10 The land of the Kasdiy will come to be spoils of war; all who plunder her shall be satisfied, says YaHuWaH.  Because you are glad, because you rejoice, O you who plunder My heritage, because you are fat as a heifer that treads out the grain, and neigh as strong horses;  50:12 your mother shall be utterly ashamed; she who bore you shall be confounded: behold, the hinder-most (last/latter) of the nations shall be a wilderness,  a dry land, and a desert. 


YirmeYahuw 50:12 Your mother shall be ashamed; she that bare you shall be confounded: behold, the hinder most of the nations shall be a wilderness, a dry land, and a desert. Now, this is an interesting verse! Some say that Babel the Great is the original Babel, currently known as Iraq. Who is Iraq's mother? Ancient Babel had no mother, only a founder... Nimrod (Gen 10:9-10) Some say that it is Yahrushalom. Who is Yahrushalom's mother? I can find no historical record that mentions the mother of Yahrushalom, first mentioned in scripture as "Salem" (Gen 14:18). Also, it doesn't seem that Yahrushalom is going to be destroyed forever, as is the case with Babel the Great. Some say that it is Europe, and the newly founded common market. Who is Europe's mother? I know of none! But, if Babel the Great today is America, who is America's mother? Is it not England? And England still exists at this time. It also says in YirmeYahuw 50:12 that Babel is the hinder most of the nations. The meaning of the word "hinder most" (strong's #319) is "last" or "latter". The United States is the youngest of the world's greatest nations. (Yahushuah.net)

 50:13 Because of the wrath of YaHuWaH she shall not be inhabited, but she shall be wholly desolate: everyone who goes by Babel shall be astonished, and hiss at all her plagues. 50:14 Set yourselves in array against Babel all around, all you who bend the bow; shoot at her, spare no arrows: for she has sinned against YaHuWaH. 50:15 Shout against her all around: she has submitted herself; her bulwarks are fallen, her walls are thrown down; for it is the vengeance of YaHuWaH: take vengeance on her; as she has done, do to her. 50:16 Cut off the sower from Babel, and him who handles the sickle in the time of harvest: for fear of the oppressing sword they shall turn everyone to his people, and they shall flee everyone to his own land. 


To his own land: This means that most of the inhabitants of this land are not native, but are a “mixed people” (see v. 37)—which is the case with the chief nations that uphold the Babylonian system today (the United States, Britain, and much of Europe - and now Asia!)


50:17 Ysra'al is a hunted sheep; the lions have driven him away: first, the sovereign of Ashshuwr devoured him; and now at last Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel has gnawed on his bones.


Again, here is an allusion to the “lost sheep of the House of Ysra'al” and their relation of being oppressed by Babel.


50:18 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: Behold, I shall punish the sovereign of Babel and his land, as I have punished the sovereign of Ashshuwr. 50:19 I shall bring Ysra'al again to his pasture, and he shall feed on Karmel and Bashan, and his being shall be satisfied on the hills of Ephrayim and in Gil'ad.  50:20 In those Days, and in that Time, says YaHuWaH, the iniquity of Ysra'al shall be sought for, but there shall be none; and the sins of Yahuwdah, and they shall not be found (Bareshiyth 31:32-35): for I shall pardon them whom I keep alive as a remnant. 50:21 Go up against the land of Merathayim, even against it, and against the inhabitants of Peqowd: kill and utterly destroy after them, says YaHuWaH, and do according to all that I have commanded you.


 50:22 A sound of battle is in the land, and of great destruction. 50:23 How is the hammer [policeman] of the whole earth cut apart and broken! how is Babel become a desolation among the nations! 50:24-25 I have laid a snare for you, and you are also taken, Babel, and you weren’t aware: you are found, and also caught, because you have striven against YaHuWaH.  YaHuWaH  has opened his armory, and has brought forth the weapons of His indignation; for the Master, YaHuWaH of Armies, has a work to do in the land of the Kasdiy. 50:26 Come against her from the utmost border; open her storehouses; cast her up as heaps, and destroy her utterly; let nothing of her be left. 50:27 Kill all her bulls [major leaders]; let them go down to the slaughter: woe to them! for their day is come, the time of their visitation. 50:28 The voice of those who flee and escape out of the land of Babel, to declare in Tsiyown the vengeance of YaHuWaH our Aluahiym, the vengeance of His Hekal.  50:29 Call together the archers against Babel, all those who bend the bow; encamp against her all around; let none of it escape: recompense her according to her work; according to all that she has done, do to her; for she has been proud against YaHuWaH, against the Qadosh-One of Ysra'al. 50:30 Therefore her young men shall fall in her streets, and all her men of war shall be brought to silence in that Day, says YaHuWaH.  Behold, I am against you, you proud one, says the Sovereign, YaHuWaH Master of Armies; for your Day has come, the time that I shall visit you. 50:32 The proud one shall stumble and fall, and none shall raise him up; and I shall kindle a fire in his cities, and it shall devour all who are around him.


 50:33 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies: The children of Ysra'al and the children of Yahuwdah are being oppressed together; and all who took them captive hold them fast; they refuse to let them go.


 [Again, we see echoes of not being to buy or sell without expressing allegiance to this system. (Rev. 13) Like Phar'oh, it will not let us go when it realizes how depleted it would be if YaHuWaH were allowed His claim on them. But…


 50:34 Their Redeemer is strong; YaHuWaH Master of Armies is His Name: He shall thoroughly plead their cause, that He may give rest to the earth, and disquiet the inhabitants of Babel. 50:35 A sword is on the Kasdiy, says YaHuWaH, and on the inhabitants of Babel, and on her heads, and on her wise men. 50:36 A sword is on the boasters, and they shall become fools; a sword is on her mighty men, and they shall be dismayed.  50:37 A sword is on their horses, and on their chariots, and on all the mixed people who are in the midst of her; and they shall become as women: a sword is on her treasures, and they shall be seized as plunder. 50:38 A drought is on her waters, and they shall be dried up; for it is a land of engraved images, and they rave over their dreadful idols!


[Rave: the same Hebrew word that forms part of “HalleluYah”, i.e., show passion and enthusiasm that is worthy only of YaHuWaH.]


50:39 Therefore the wild animals of the desert with the wolves shall dwell there, and the ostriches shall dwell therein: and it shall be no more inhabited forever; neither shall it be lived in from generation to generation. [Compare 9:11; Rev. 18:2; YashaYahuw 34:11.]  50:40 As when Aluahiym overthrew Sedom and Amorah and the neighbor cities of it, says YaHuWaH, so shall no man dwell there, neither shall any son of man sojourn therein. 50:41 Behold, a people comes from the north; and a great nation and many sovereigns shall be stirred up from the uttermost parts of the earth. 50:42 They lay hold on bow and spear; they are cruel, and have no mercy; their voice roars like the sea; and they ride on horses, everyone set in array, as a man to the battle, against you, daughter of Babel. 50:43 The sovereign of Babel has heard the news of them, and his hands wax feeble: anguish has taken hold of him, and pangs as of a woman in travail. 


 [One fulfillment of this was in Daniel 5:6, but the city of Babel was not destroyed at that time, nor has it ever been; it has merely fallen into ruins. Therefore, there is a fuller reference point yet to come.] 


50:44 Behold, the enemy shall come up like a lion from the swelling of the Yarden against the strong habitation: for I shall suddenly make my people run away from Babel; and I will charge young warriors against her; for who is like Me? and who shall assail Me? or what leader is there who can prevail against Me?


Swelling of the Yarden: the time of its flooding, when the water is higher than usual, adding to the proof that this is no ordinary event. A chosen one: or, a youth.


50:45 Therefore hear the counsel of YaHuWaH, that He has taken against Babel; and His purposes, that He has purposed against the land of the Kasdiy: Surely they shall drag them away, even the little ones of the flock; surely He shall make their habitation desolate over them. 50:46 At the noise of the taking of Babel the earth trembles, and the cry is heard among the nations. [Rev. 18:10-11]



51:1 Thus says YaHuWaH: Behold, I shall raise up against Babel, and against those who dwell in Leb - My opponents, a destroying wind. 51:2 I shall send to Babel strangers, who shall winnow her; and they shall empty her land: for in the day of trouble (oppression/tribulation) they shall be against her around. 51:3 Against him who bends let the archer bend his bow, and against him who lifts himself up in his coat of mail: and don’t spare her young men; utterly destroy all her army. 51:4 They shall fall down slain in the land of the Kasdiy, and thrust through in her streets.  51:5 For Ysra'al is not forsaken, nor Yahuwdah, of his Aluahiym, of YaHuWaH Master of Armies; though their land has been filled with wickedness against the Qadosh-One of Ysra'al. 51:6 Flee out of the midst of Babel, and save every man his life; do not be silent when she is perverse [or do not be caught up in her corruption, which agrees with Rev. 18:4.]  for it is the time of YaHuWaH’s vengeance; He shall render to her a recompense.

  

51:7 Babel has been a golden cup in YaHuWaH’s hand, making all the earth drunken: the nations have drunk of her wine; therefore the nations stagger with drunkenness (are mad). (Rev. 18) 51:8 Babel is suddenly fallen and destroyed: wail for her; take balm for her pain, if so be she may be healed.  51:9 We would have healed Babel, but she is not healed (Rev. 2:21): forsake her, and let us go everyone into his own country; for her judgment reaches to heaven, and is lifted up even to the skies, and is carried up to the thin clouds!


We repaired: or, we would have healed; LXX, we tried to heal. Christianity has tried for 2,000 years to “fix the world”, to redeem the economic system, to bring it under dominion, but it has not worked. It is therefore time to go back to being Ysra'al and return to the Land of Yahuwah, where righteousness is truly at home.


51:10 YaHuWaH has brought forth our righteousness: come, and let us declare in Tsiyown the work of YaHuWaH our Aluahiym.

51:11 Make sharp the arrows; hold firm the shields: YaHuWaH has stirred up the ruwach of the sovereigns of the Maday (Iran); because His purpose is against Babel, to destroy it: for it is the vengeance of YaHuWaH, the vengeance of His Hekal.


[YashaYahuw 13:17 Behold, I shall stir up the Maday [middle land] against them, who shall not value silver, and as for gold, they shall not delight in it. ]


51:12 Set up a Banner upon the walls of Babel, make the watch strong, set the watchmen, prepare the ambushes; for YaHuWaH has both purposed and done that which He spoke concerning the inhabitants of Babel. 

51:13 You who dwell upon many waters, abundant in treasures, your end has come, the measure of your unjust profit has been reached.


Unjust profit: the reason the Babelian system keeps thriving is covetousness, a lust for power and position that Ysra'al has no business with anyway (Rev. 20:17).


 51:14 YaHuWaH Master of Armies has sworn by Himself, saying, Surely I shall fill you with men [an army], as with young locusts; and they shall lift up a shout against you. 

(Rev. 9:1-11 Trumpet 5 - first Woe) 

With humanity: that is, an army. Young locusts: or, caterpillars.


 51:15 YaHuWaH has made the earth by His Power, He has established the world by His Wisdom, and by His understanding has He stretched out the heavens: 51:16 when He utters his Voice, there is a tumult of waters in the heavens, and He causes the vapors to ascend from the ends of the earth; He makes lightning for the rain, and brings forth the wind out of His treasuries. 51:17 Every human being is unreceptive to knowledge; every goldsmith is disappointed by his image; for his molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them.


Unreceptive to knowledge: or dull-hearted, too brutish even to see that the work of one’s own hands is not alive. We tend to trust in the hope that there is life in what has no life. “My people perish for lack of knowledge.” (Hos. 4:6; compare Prov. 29:18) Babel’s secret to survival is to keep the public blind, withhold the information that could topple it easily, and to feed it a “knowledge” that dulls it to the more important truths through the idea that what is most important is physical possessions. Cast metal image: These idols were usually made of gold and silver, and today’s “gods” are no different, taking only a different form so the connection is not so obvious to the masses.


51:18 They are vanity, a work of delusion: in the time of their visitation they shall perish. 51:19 The Portion of Ya'aqob is not like these; for He is the Maker of all things; and Ysra'al is the tribe of His inheritance: YaHuWaH Master of Armies is His Name. 


Ya'aqob’s Share/Portion: While others may be placed under the jurisdiction of lesser ruwachual rulers, Ysra'al is allotted the privilege of answering directly to the Highest Aluahiym. With this comes greater responsibility to go through no others and have dealings with none but Him. (Exodus 20:3) Scepter of His possession: or, rod of His inheritance, i.e., stake marking the boundary of His property.


51:20 You are My battle axe and weapons of war, for with you shall I break in pieces the nations; and with you shall I destroy kingdoms; 51:21 and with you shall I break in pieces the horse and his rider; 51:22 and with you shall I break in pieces the chariot and him who rides therein; and with you shall I break in pieces man and woman; and with you shall I break in pieces the old man and the youth; and with you shall I break in pieces the young man and the virgin; 51:23 and with you shall I break in pieces the shepherd and his flock; and with you shall I break in pieces the farmer and his yoke of oxen; and with you shall I break in pieces governors and deputies. 51:24-25 I shall render to Babel and to all the inhabitants of the Kasdiy for all their evil that they have done in Tsiyown in your sight, says YaHuWaH.  Behold, I am against you, destroying mountain, says YaHuWaH, which destroys all the earth; and I shall stretch out My hand on you, and roll you down from the rocks, and shall make you into a burning mountain.


The unified Babelonian system, as depicted by the statue in Nebukhadretzar’s dream (Daniel 2:37-45), is an image—i.e., only a projection, a counterfeit, a shadow of something else that is more real: the “one new man” that is formed by all those who are called out from the nations, with Mashiyach as the Head—the restored “image of Aluahiym” that was lost at Adam’s fall. Interestingly enough, YaHuWSHuWaH is depicted there as a stone that will topple the other image, then turn into a mountain that fills the earth. He is also called the cornerstone (Psalm 118:22), unlike Babel, which ends with a mere thud after its fall:


51:26 They shall not take of you a stone for a corner, nor a stone for foundations; but you shall be desolate into the age of ages, says YaHuWaH.  Set up a Banner in the Land, blow the shofar among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minniy, and Ashkenaz: appoint a marshal against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough canker worm.


Ararat: on the border between Turkey and Armenia. Minni: a region in Armenia. Ashkenaz: the Germanic peoples, but perhaps originally dwelling in the region of Bithynia in north central Turkey.


 51:28 Prepare against her the nations, the sovereigns of the Maday, its governors, and all its deputies, and all the land of their dominion. 51:29 The land trembles and is in pain; for the purposes of YaHuWaH against Babel do stand, to make the land of Babel a desolation, without inhabitant. 51:30 The mighty men of Babel have forborne to fight, they remain in their strongholds; their might has failed; they are become as women: her dwelling places are set on fire; her bars are broken. 51:31 One runner shall run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another, to show the sovereign of Babel that his city is taken on every quarter: 51:32 and the passages are seized, and the reeds they have burned with fire, and the men of war are frightened.  51:33 For thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies, the Aluahiym of Ysra'al: The daughter of Babel is like a threshing floor when the wheat is ready to be threshed; yet a little while, and the time of harvest shall come for her. 51:34 Yahrushalom has said "Nebuwkadne'tstsar the sovereign of Babel has devoured us, he has crushed us, he has made us an empty vessel, he has, like a dragon, swallowed us up, he has filled his belly with my delicacies; he has cast us out. [Chabuqquwq 1:14-17] 51:35 The violence done to me and to my blood relatives be on Babel, shall the inhabitant of Tsiyown say; and let my blood be on the inhabitants of the Kasdiy", shall Yahrushalom say.

 51:36 Therefore thus says YaHuWaH: Behold, I shall plead your cause, and take vengeance for you; and I shall dry up her sea, and make her fountain dry. 51:37 Babel shall become heaps, a dwelling place for jackals, an astonishment, and a hissing, without inhabitant. 51:38 They shall roar together like young lions; they shall growl as lions’ cubs. 51:39 When they are  in heat, I shall set out their banquets, and I shall make them drunken, that they may rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake, says YaHuWaH.


It was on such a night of revelry that Belshazzar was killed and his kingdom overtaken. (Daniel 5)


51:40  I shall bring them down like lambs to the slaughter, like rams with male goats. 51:41 How is it that Sheshach is taken! And what the whole earth adored is caught by surprise! How is Babel become a desolation among the nations! 51:42 The sea is come up over Babel; she is hidden beneath the turbulent multitude of its waves. [Chp. 25]  51:43 Her cities are become a desolation, a dry land, and a desert, a land in which no man dwells, neither does any son of man pass thereby. 51:44 I shall execute judgment on Bel in Babel, and I shall bring forth out of his mouth that which he has swallowed up; and the nations shall not flow any more to him (The UN): yes, the wall [Wall St. ??] of Babel shall fall. 51:45-46 My people, go away from the midst of her, and save yourselves every man from the fierce anger of YaHuWaH. [REV. 18:4 +] Don’t let your heart faint, neither fear for a report that shall be heard in the land; for a rumor shall come one year, and after that in another year shall come news, and violence in the land, ruler against ruler. [2 yr. span ?]


Report: or rumor. YaHuWSHuWaH echoed this in His advance notice that we should not be afraid when we hear of wars and rumors of wars. (Mat. 24:6)


51:47 Therefore, behold, the Days come, that I shall execute judgment on the engraved images of Babel; and her whole land shall be confounded; and all her slain shall fall in the midst of her. 51:48-49 Then the heavens and the earth, and all that is therein, shall sing for joy over Babel; for the destroyers shall come to her from the north (missiles over the pole ?), says YaHuWaH. [Rev. 18:20  “Rejoice over her, O heaven, you set-apart ones, emissaries, and prophets; for YaHuWaH has completely avenged you on her.” ] As Babel is to fall for the slain of Ysra'al, so for Babel the slain of all the earth shall fall.


 [LXX: In Babel the slain men of all the earth shall fall. Rev. 18:24 In her was found the blood of prophets and of set-apart ones, and of all who have been slain on the earth.”   [And also in Babel there shall fall the slain of Ysra'al, and the slain of Babel shall fall all over the earth. Lamsa] (It is possible that this "great city" is in the heavenly realms - ha satan's city. ... and when she falls so does the earthly counterpart.)


 51:50 You who have escaped the sword, go, don’t stand still; remember YaHuWaH from afar, and let Yahrushalom come into your mind.


Those who have escaped the sword: Yahuwah had said that a sword would follow Ysra'al into its exile, and continue to devour many there. (42:16; 49:38) Those whom He sees fit to leave alive are the remnant of 50:22; 23:3. Let Yahrushalom come up into your mind: or, let Yahrushalom take precedence over your own heart (i.e., more important to us than our own private interests). Yahrushalom is a larger concept than the mere city, though it is meant to embody that as the “central headquarters” of Yahuwah’s revelation. The concept is that of a unified people, an Ysra'al that acts as a single entity. Do not let the Babelian system steal your heart, but let the only real alternative (and the true one) have all your allegiance. You cannot serve yourself; you will have to serve one or the other of these.


 51:51 We are confounded, because we have heard reproach; confusion has covered our faces: for strangers are come into the sanctuaries of YaHuWaH’s House.


Strangers: or, more particularly, those who are estranged, i.e., having once had a place in our midst but have left due to a falling-out.


 51:52 Therefore, behold, the days come, says YaHuWaH, that I shall execute judgment on her engraved images; and through all her land the wounded shall groan.


 [Carved images: or simply, idols, with all the figurative applications this term may have today, since Babel represents the economic system that “deals in the bodies and souls of men”. (Rev. 18:13)]


 51:53-54 Though Babel should mount up to the sky, and though she should fortify the height of her strength, yet from Me shall destroyers come to her, says YaHuWaH. The sound of a cry from Babel, and of great destruction from the land of the Kasdiy! 51:55 For YaHuWaH lays Babel waste, and destroys out of her the great voice [Rev. 13:5 And he [the Beast] was given a mouth speaking great things]; and their waves roar like many waters; the noise of their voice is uttered:  51:56 for the destroyer is come on her, even on Babel, and her mighty men are taken, their bows are broken in pieces; for YaHuWaH is an Aluahiym of recompenses, He shall surely requite.  51:57 I shall make drunk her heads and her wise men, her governors and her deputies, and her mighty men; [with the wine of Babel] and they shall sleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake up, says the Sovereign, whose Name is YaHuWaH Master of Armies. 51:58 Thus says YaHuWaH Master of Armies: The broad walls of Babel shall be utterly overthrown, and her high gates shall be burned with fire; and the peoples shall labor for vanity, and the nations for the fire; and they shall be weary from building them.


 51:59 The word which YirmeYahuw the prophet commanded SeraYahuw the son of NeriYahuw, the son of MachseYahuw, when he went with TsidqiYahuw the sovereign of Yahuwdah to Babel in the fourth year of his reign. Now SeraYahuw was chief quarter-master. 51:60 YirmeYahuw wrote in a book all the evil that should come on Babel, even all these words that are written concerning Babel. 51:61 YirmeYahuw said to SeraYahuw, When you come to Babel, then see that you read all these words, 51:62 and say, YaHuWaH, You have spoken concerning this place, to cut it off, that none shall dwell therein, neither man nor animal, but that it shall be desolate forever. 51:63 It shall be, when you have made an end of reading this book, that you shall bind a stone to it, and cast it into the midst of the Perath: 51:64 and you shall say, Thus shall Babel sink, and shall not rise again because of the evil that I shall bring on her; and they shall be weary.  [Rev. 18:21 A mighty messenger took up a stone like a great millstone and cast it into the sea, saying, “Thus with violence will Babel, the great city, be thrown down, and will be found no more at all.]

Thus far are the words of YirmeYahuw. (end of what YirmeYahuw wrote)



52:1 TsidqiYahuw was twenty-one years old when he began to reign; and he reigned eleven years in Yahrushalom: and his mother’s name was Chamuwtal the daughter of YirmeYahuw of Libnah. 52:2 He did that which was evil in the sight of YaHuWaH, according to all that Yahuwyaqim had done. 52:3 Because of these evils the anger of YaHuWaH came against Yahrushalom and Yahuwdah, until He had cast them out from His presence. TsidqiYahuw rebelled against the sovereign of Babel.  52:4 It happened in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuwkadne'tstsar sovereign of Babel came, he and all his army, against Yahrushalom, and encamped against it; and they built forts against it round about.

This is about two weeks before the season that would later be celebrated as Hanukkah.

52:5 So the city was besieged to the eleventh year of sovereign TsidqiYahuw. 52:6 In the fourth month, in the ninth day of the month, the famine was sore in the city, so that there was no bread for the people of the land. 52:7 Then a breach was made in the city, and all the men of war fled, (the city fell) and went forth out of the city by night by the way of the gate between the two walls, which was by the king’s garden; (now the Kasdiy were against the city all around;) and they went toward the desert plain.


Double walls: LXX, between the wall and the outworks, i.e., an extra wall for added fortification. Aravah: the Great Rift Valley; the Yarden Valley at this point. Technically the term means “transitional zone” between arable land and desert.


 52:8 But the army of the Kasdiy pursued after the sovereign, and overtook TsidqiYahuw in the plains of Yerichow; and all his army was scattered from him. 52:9 Then they took the sovereign, and carried him up to the sovereign of Babel to Riblah in the land of Chamath; and he gave judgment on him. 52:10 The sovereign of Babel killed the sons of TsidqiYahuw before his eyes: he killed also all the princes of Yahuwdah in Riblah. 52:11 He put out the eyes of TsidqiYahuw; and the sovereign of Babel bound him in fetters, and carried him to Babel, and put him in prison until the day of his death. 


Blinded the eyes: Yahuwah was only doing what He had told Ysra'al to do—requiring an eye for an eye (Ex. 21:24), since Tzidqiyahu had done evil in Yahuwah’s eyes (v. 2). Yahuwah also used this phrase “evil in his eyes” as a reason a man could put away his wife (Ex. 21:8), so here the king is legally the representative of all of Yahuwdah being put away for a time because when a king does evil, it blinds the people that he rules. Brass fetters: Brass is often symbolic in Scripture of the guilt resulting from sin and needing atonement. This was a sign that it was because of the sins of the kings of Ysra'al that this was taking place. House of custody: perhaps a prison, but literally it means “house of visitation”, from a root word meaning to oversee or look after; LXX, grinding-house. Being accustomed to luxury, he may not have survived long in such conditions.


 52:12 Now in the fifth month, in the tenth day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of sovereign Nebuwkadne'tstsar, sovereign of Babel, came Nebuwzaradan the captain of the guard, who stood before the sovereign of Babel, into Yahrushalom: 52:13 and he burned the House of YaHuWaH, and the king’s house; and all the houses of Yahrushalom, even every great house, burned he with fire. 


 [Chp. 39:1-2 In the fourth month, in the ninth day ... a breach was made in the city, and all the men of war fled .... (the city fell)  [The city wall was again breached on this same date in A.D. 70, and the second Temple destroyed the next day, according to the historian Josephus.] and then .... on the ninth and tenth day of the fifth month the House of YaHuWaH was burned as well as other houses.]

[The 4th month is Tammuz, the 5th month is Av - today Jews "mark" this day on the 9th day of Av - the fifth month & 9th day (our 8th month- Aug.)


 52:14 All the army of the Kasdiy, who were with the captain of the guard, broke down all the walls of Yahrushalom all around. 52:15 Then Nebuwzaradan the captain of the guard carried away captive of the poorest of the people, and the residue of the people who were left in the city, and those who fell away, who fell to the sovereign of Babel, and the residue of the multitude. 52:16 But Nebuwzaradan the captain of the guard left of the poorest of the Land to be vineyard keepers and farmers. 52:17 The pillars of brass that were in the House of YaHuWaH, and the bases and the bronze sea that were in the House of YaHuWaH, did the Kasdiy break in pieces, and carried all the brass of them to Babel.


Broke: They were too large to be carried whole. Yahuwah also broke His true treasure (the people of Ysra'al) into many pieces in order to preserve it. Sea: i.e., the laver, where the priests on duty washed their hands and feet between tasks. It is a picture of the “sea of glass” before the throne in heaven (Rev. 4:6). The whole temple was a copy of the true heavenly “temple”. (Heb. 8:5; 9:23-24) David had been shown a pattern of exactly how to build it. (1 Chron. 28:11-12)


52:18 The pots also, and the shovels, and the snuffers, and the basins, and the spoons, and all the vessels of brass with which they ministered, took they away. 52:19 The cups, and the fire pans, and the basins, and the pots, and the menorahs, and the spoons, and the bowls—that which was of gold, in gold, and that which was of silver, in silver,—the captain of the guard took away.


Spoons: LXX, censers (pans for carrying incense). It was the profaning of these utensils that cost Nevukhadretzar’s successor his throne and his empire. (Daniel 5:2ff)


 52:20 The two pillars, the one sea, and the twelve bronze bulls that were under the bases, which sovereign Shelomoh had made for the House of YaHuWaH. The brass of all these vessels was not weighed.


Not weighed: LXX, without weight, probably meaning it was too much to weigh. Bronze bulls: or oxen. Were these not like the golden calf Aharon had made, angering Moshe and Yahuwah? In this case, none of them was intended as representing Yahuwah, nor were they worshipped. They were bound to the earth, and were of bronze, speaking of their imperfection. The clue as to their significance is the number twelve, which is the number of the tribes of Ysra'al. Mystically it is the strength of the tribes of Ysra'al that upholds the heavens. That is, it gives a reason for Yahuwah’s throne. The Infinite One needs nothing physical to sustain Him, but once He revealed Himself within an earthly context, if He had no kingdom to rule, He could not be a king.


 52:21 As for the pillars, the height of the one pillar was eighteen cubits; and a line of twelve cubits did compass it; and its thickness was four fingers: it was hollow. 52:22 A capital of brass was on it; and the height of the one capital was five cubits, with network and pomegranates on the capital all around, all of brass: and the second pillar also had like these, and pomegranates. 52:23 There were ninety-six pomegranates on the sides; all the pomegranates were one hundred on the network all around.


On a quadrant: literally, on the wind or on a ruwach/breath. If there were 96 per side, there would be 384 on each column itself, plus 100 on each capital, making a total of 484 pomegranates in all on each pillar.


 52:24 The captain of the guard took SeraYahuw the chief priest, and TsephanYahuw the second priest, and the three keepers of the threshold:


Second priest: in rank; literally, the copy (Heb., mishneh), i.e., the one who would fill in for the head priest should he become ritually impure or otherwise unable to serve.


 52:25 and out of the city he took an officer who was set over the men of war; and seven men of those who saw the king’s face, who were found in the city; and the scribe of the captain of the army, who mustered the people of the land; and sixty men of the people of the land, who were found in the midst of the city.

 

Men who attended: LXX, men of renown. Literally, who saw the face of the king. People of the Land: an idiom for commoners, not particularly learned.


52:26 Nebuwzaradan the captain of the guard took them, and brought them to the sovereign of Babel to Rivlah.  52:27 The sovereign of Babel struck them, and put them to death at Riblah in the land of Chamath. So Yahuwdah was carried away captive out of his land. 52:28 This is the people whom Nebuwkadne'tstsar carried away captive: in the seventh year three thousand twenty-three Yahudim; 52:29 in the eighteenth year of Nebuwkadne'tstsar he carried away captive from Yahrushalom eight hundred thirty-two persons; 


Apparently he “waited for the cream to rise to the top” to see who would turn out to be a natural leader among those still in the Land, then took those back home to enhance his kingdom, as he had with the first wave.


52:30 in the three and twentieth year of Nebuwkadne'tstsar Nebuwzaradan the captain of the guard carried away captive of the Yahudim seven hundred forty-five persons: all the persons were four thousand and six hundred. 52:31 It happened in the seven and thirtieth year of the captivity of Yahuwyaqim sovereign of Yahuwdah, in the twelfth month, in the five and twentieth day of the month, that Evilmerodach sovereign of Babel, in the first year of his reign, lifted up the head of Yahuwyaqim sovereign of Yahuwdah, and brought him forth out of prison;


Ewil-M’rodakh means “soldier of [the god of] his rebellion”. Raised the head: the LXX adds, “and shaved him”, probably the best way to disinfect him after dwelling in such conditions.


 52:32 and he spoke kindly to him, and set his throne above the thrones of the sovereigns who were with him in Babel,


 [Thrones…with him: Nevukhadretzar was shrewd in allowing the kings he had conquered to maintain their own thrones, for then their people would not rebel against him. After all, he was still a king, and was allied with the greatest king of his day. Zealots are hard for an empire to deal with, as Rome well knew, so Babel accommodated them, but in doing so, took away their teeth. Since Babel has continued in the form of a worldwide financial system, we can see the same pattern. It does not wish to eliminate religion, only to profit from it and make it serve its purposes, having a say in how it is carried out. Religion today is an honored throne, and it is recognized so that it can be controlled. Until it is the whole system that religion calls into question, it is allowed to operate with some freedom. But once the façade is exposed, it has as little actual power as the Wizard of Oz, so it placates the religious so they will not see through the smokescreen.]


 52:33 and changed his prison garments. Yahuwyaqim  ate bread before him continually all the days of his life: 52:34 and for his allowance, there was a continual allowance given him by the sovereign of Babel, every day a portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life.


Something each day: literally, a day’s word (matter, thing). In summary, the judgments spoken of throughout YirmeYahuw and this chapter in regard to the Kingdom of Yahuwdah took place because the Land was not given its sabbatical years and because the kings of Ysra'al were evil. Ysra'al’s purpose is to form a dwelling-place for Yahuwah. We stepped out of the 6 + 1 pattern, and because of this there were no building-blocks left, so it fell apart. The Temple service was no longer following His pattern either, so He let it be destroyed. But as Abraham’s descendants who are “like the dust of the earth” (or Land), we make up the mystical aspect of the Land of Ysra'al. And we are in the days of the restoration of all things as the ruwach of EliYahuw (Yahuwah is Aluahiym) returns before the Day of Yahuwah. How, then, can we reverse this pattern and re-establish the foundation? Through following the same Sabbath pattern. We need to line our individual lives up with the pattern, not try to make it fit our schedules. His Kingdom is there waiting, but we cannot experience it until we walk in His patterns. But when we do, we can participate in Yahuwah’s re-creation of His dwelling place, and thus the return to the Garden of Eden.